Volost


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Volost

 

an administrative and territorial unit in Russia from the llth through the 20th century; in the 15th century, the volost became part of the district. During the 13th-16th centuries volosti existed on the so-called black lands—that is, crown, boyar, and monastery lands.

The volost was given by the prince to the volostel’ (volost official) for his “feeding”: the populace was assessed taxes, duties, and fees for the official’s benefit. In the mid-16th century the government abolished the “feeding” system. In the 17th century, with the establishment of city voevody (military commanders), the volost lost its significance as an independent administrative unit; however, volost government bodies were established in the late 18th century, and the volost again became an administrative-territorial unit. The 1837 reform of state peasant land tenure created a volost assembly and volost government which were subordinate to the Chamber of State Properties. According to the Law of 1861, the volost became a unit of peasant corporate administration, and from 1874 this administrative system was under the jurisdiction of the district office of peasant affairs; from 1889, jurisdiction was transferred to the district land captain.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the volost formally became a unit of “self-administration” that included all classes, but as a rule it was an organ of kulak supremacy. In the early years of Soviet power volosts were fragmented as a result of the transfer of state and gentry lands to the peasants. Beginning in 1923 the enlargement of the volost eliminated the difference between it and the district in most of the USSR. The reform of 1928-30 replaced the district-volost system of administrative-territorial division with the raion system, which was based on a consideration of the economic ties of the population to the raion’s center.

REFERENCES

Ignat’ev, V. I. Sovetskaia volost’ i stoiashchie pered net zadachi. Leningrad, 1924.
Grekov, B. D. Krest’iane na Rusi, 2nd ed., vols. 1-2. Moscow, 1952-54.

S. M. KASHTANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Rather, they turned to the established village administrative institutions, the volost courts and land captains, to resolve their disputes.
15) Finally, Russian peasants overwhelmed the volost ' (township) courts with property disputes and other civil actions, and although these cases were governed by customary law and technically off-limits to professional advocates, peasants sometimes turned to the consultation bureaus for assistance with their volost' claims.
Sibrevkom was to report to the Commissariat of Agriculture by 10 July on the amount of land available for settlement, its location, the number of settlers to be accommodated in each uezd and volost, and the corresponding point of disembarkation.