Vulgate


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Vulgate

(vŭl`gāt) [Lat. Vulgata editio=common edition], most ancient extant version of the whole Christian BibleBible
[Gr.,=the books], term used since the 4th cent. to denote the Christian Scriptures and later, by extension, those of various religious traditions. This article discusses the nature of religious scripture generally and the Christian Scriptures specifically, as well as the
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. Its name derives from a 13th-century reference to it as the "editio vulgata." The official Latin version of the Roman Catholic Church, it was prepared c.A.D. 383–A.D. 405 by St. JeromeJerome, Saint
, c.347–420?, Christian scholar, Father of the Church, Doctor of the Church. He was born in Stridon on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia of Christian parents (although he was not baptized until 366); his Roman name was Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus.
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 (c.342–420) at the request of Pope St. Damasus IDamasus I, Saint
, c.305–384, pope (366–84), a Spaniard; successor of Liberius. His election was opposed by the Arian Ursinus (antipope 366–67). The Roman emperor Valentinian I had Ursinus exiled and decreed that all religious cases must come before the pope.
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, his patron. The Vulgate was intended to replace the Old Latin version (the "Itala"), which was translated from the Greek. Jerome first revised the Old Latin Gospels, translating them in 383–84. Using the Septuagint and Origen's HexaplaHexapla
[Gr.,=sixfold], polyglot edition of the Hebrew Bible prepared by Origen (c.185–c.255). It was mainly in six columns—a Hebrew text (probably the Masoretic), a Greek transliteration of it, and four Greek versions (those of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, and
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, he set to work (385–89) on Job, the Psalms, Chronicles, the books attributed to Solomon, and chapters 40–55 of Isaiah. From 390–405, Jerome used the Hebrew Masoretic text, with the aid of several rabbis, for the basis of his translation. Regarding the Psalms, Jerome made three versions: the Roman Psalter, a mild revision of the Old Latin translation of the Septuagint, used in the Roman liturgy until c.1570; the Gallican Psalter, a revision of the Old Latin to parallel it with the Hebrew Masoretic text; and the later Hebrew Psalter, a new translation of the Hebrew Masoretic text. Texts of the Vulgate now contain the Gallican Psalter. As to the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, Jerome made hasty translations of Tobit, Judith, and the additions to Daniel and Esther; the rest he did not touch, hence the Vulgate includes Old Latin versions of them. From the 5th cent. the Vulgate was popular in the West; by the early Middle Ages it was used everywhere by the Latin churches of the West. All the early vernacular translations were from the Vulgate, which was the first Bible printed on Gutenberg's press. In 1546 the Council of Trent made the Vulgate the official version of the Catholic Church, and in 1592 the official text with no variants was promulgated by Clement VIII. All subsequent editions of the Vulgate published with the church's imprimatur represent this Clementine edition.

Bibliography

See J. N. D. Kelly, Jerome (1975); B. M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament (1977). See also the Benedictine and the Stuttgart editions.

Vulgate

a. (from the 13th century onwards) the fourth-century version of the Bible produced by Jerome, partly by translating the original languages, and partly by revising the earlier Latin text based on the Greek versions
b. (as modifier): the Vulgate version
References in periodicals archive ?
By privileging the Vulgate and its verbum, Trent settled the general meaning of and systematic approach to translation in favor of the Johannine/ Augustinian tradition, though the specific language of translation remained a topic of debate.
Though Beza himself was well known, as was the reputation of his translation, the text of his translation was considerably rarer than the Vulgate.
37) Sometimes the neglect of Roman Catholic versions in connection with "Justus quidem tu es, Domine" can appear wilful, as when Donald Davie focuses on a doubtful connection between "justly famous lines" in "Justus quidem tu es, Domine" and one of Coverdale's versions of the Psalms in his excellent anthology The Psalms in English (1996), ignoring other, more obvious correlations with the Douay-Rheims and the Vulgate (the awkwardness of the echo-the poem's "just," Davie's "justly famous"--is perhaps indicative of problems with method).
In the Latin Vulgate, eshet hayil it is rendered as the mulierem fortem, the "strong woman".
Although Tennyson drew on the Vulgate and Malory's Merlin to depict the wizard's loss of power through his love for a woman, he later shifted his view.
Indeed, this Vulgate author, more so than any of the others, brings to life characters whose thoughts and feelings are responsible for the unfolding of the narrative action.
There are scattered references in The Bible in English to the Council of Trent, but it is clear that the author finds little to commend in the second decree of the fourth session, which declares "that the ancient Vulgate edition, which has been approved by the Church herself through long usage for so many centuries, should be considered the authentic edition for public reading, disputations, sermons, and explanations.
Venerated for his consummate and prolific Christian writings, aggressive promotion of asceticism and virginity, mediation between western and eastern theology, and translation of the Vulgate, Jerome is simultaneously vilified for his petulance, antagonistic condemnations of his peers, "spiritual seduction" of aristocratic ladies, and questionable association with the heretical teachings of Origen.
This concordance to the Vulgate provided alphabetical access to all the substantive words of Scripture in the context of the phrases in which they occurred.
The Vulgate and Pesitta concur, offering neque comam nutrient and wqwsthwn l' nrbwn.
L'auteur montre que, imposee a l'Afrique, cette nouvelle vulgate de la pensee economique qui oeuvre pour le demembrement de l'Etat et l'annulation du pouvoir decisionnel des dirigeants nationaux fait voler en eclats les espoirs que nourrissaient les Africains vis-a-vis de l'independance politique.
The translation he initiated is in colloquial Japanese and is based on the most recent critical editions of the original texts, yet keeping the Latin Vulgate in mind.