WTOR


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WTOR

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We also characterized adverse events based on wheelchair type, direction of excursion (fore-aft wheelchair excursion, lateral wheelchair excursion, combined fore-aft and lateral wheelchair excursion, and other wheelchair and/or wheelchair passenger excursion), and WTORS configuration (number of tiedowns applied and whether the lap belt and shoulder belt were used).
The tree-diagram in Figure 2 characterizes the direction of excursion and WTORS configuration for each adverse event with minor instability.
It is important to compare our results with previously published WTORS loading data.
This study confirmed that WTORS forces differ greatly between the frontal and rear-impact scenarios and provided a quantitative comparison of WTORS loading in frontal impact sled tests and computer simulations.
Because federal regulatory testing has historically required frontal barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles to be conducted at 30mph, the standards require that WTORS and wheelchairs are crash tested using a 30mph, 20g frontal-impact pulse similar to that used in FMVSS 213.
In addition to establishing design and performance requirements for WTORS and wheelchairs, both standards require that the product be labeled and that the manufacturer provide instructions for proper installation and use in motor vehicles.
After each test, the wheelchair and WTORS were inspected for damage.
Abbreviations: AIS1 = Abbreviated Injury Scale-score 1, BioRID-II = Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy II, COG = center of gravity, FMVSS = Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, HIC = head injury criterion, IIWPG = Insurance Institute for Whiplash Prevention Group, ISO = International Organization for Standardization, NDC = neck displacement criterion, NIC = neck injury criterion, T = thoracic, WTORS = wheelchair tie-down and occupant restraint system.
Known simply as WC19, ANSI/ RESNA*WC19: Wheelchairs for Use as Seats in Motor Vehicles described the design, performance, testing, and labeling of a wheelchair designed to work well with WTORS and able to withstand the forces of a crash test.
In a public or paratransit vehicle, four-point securement allows one WTORS to fit all types and sizes of wheelchairs and their riders.
The ADA national standard for WTORS was developed without the benefit of adequate information concerning the risk of injury or death to wheelchair riders and with virtually no information concerning the transit bus crash environment.
It is important to note that many wheelchair and WTORS manufacturers, along with researchers and consumers, have been active participants in the development of these new standards.