Wadi Hammamat


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Wadi Hammamat

 

a river bed that ran dry in antiquity; right tributary of the Nile, the shortest route between the region of Thebes and the Red Sea. The region around the Wadi Hammamat was inhabited in the time of the Badarian, Amratian, and Gerzean cultures (fifth to fourth millennium B.C.), when the river was still flowing there. During the golden age of ancient Egypt, caravans were sent through the Wadi Hammamat with gold, copper, tin, and stone mined in the region. Numerous ancient Egyptian inscriptions have been preserved on the cliffs.

REFERENCES

Childe, V. Gordon. Drevneishii vostok v svete novykh raskopok. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from English.)
Golenishchev, V. “Epigraficheskie rezul’taty poezdki v Uadi-Khammamat.” In the collection Zapiski Vostochnogo otdeleniia Russkogo arkheologicheskogo obshchestva, vol. 2, issues 1-2. St. Petersburg, 1887.

L. A. FADEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
on the smooth walls of Wadi Hammamat (Valley of Baths).
Goyon, Nouvelles inscriptions rupestres du Wadi Hammamat (Paris, 1957), 132, pl.
The earliest surviving Egyptian map is an annotated pictorial record of an expedition to the bekhen-stone ('greywacke' or siltstone) quarries of Wadi Hammamat in the Eastern Desert.
Commemorative texts list smaller numbers of workers on the expeditions to Sinai and Wadi el-Hudi than in the Wadi Hammamat or Hatnub (Sadek 1980: 104), where major expeditions and the movement of heavy, awkward loads would have required large numbers of unskilled corvee-labourers.
Rock Inscriptions of Lower Nubia), Sinai, Wadi Hammamat, and Middle Kingdom Thebes, although very limited in scope, are a useful compilation.
It should therefore not surprise us to find that most of the major prehistoric centers--especially Maadi, Nagada, and Abydos--were each situated close to a wadi that gave them access to trade routes, which led either northeasterly across the Sinai and thence to Canaan (Maadi), easterly toward the Red Sea via the Wadi Hammamat (Nagada), or southwesterly toward the western desert oases and the regions further south (Abydos).
It is interesting again that the high priest Ramessesnakht was involved in the great quarrying expedition to the Wadi Hammamat under Ramesses IV and in securing gold and galena under Ramesses VII and IX.