Wahhabi

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Related to Wahabism: Salafism

Wahhabi

or

Wahabi

(wähä`bē), reform movement in IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.1703–1791), who was influenced by Ibn TaymiyyaIbn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad
, 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the East, and during the continuous threat of Christendom from the North and West.
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 and taught that all accretions to Islam after the 3d cent. of the Muslim era—i.e., after c.950—were spurious and must be expunged. This view, involving essentially a purification of the Sunni sect, regarded the veneration of saints, ostentation in worship, and luxurious living as the chief evils. Accordingly, Wahhabi mosques are simple and without minarets, and the adherents dress plainly and do not smoke tobacco or hashish.

Driven from Medina for his preaching, the founder of the Wahhabi sect went into the NE Nejd and converted the Saud tribe. The Saudi sheik, convinced that it was his religious mission to wage holy war (jihad) against all other forms of Islam, began the conquest of his neighbors in c.1763. By 1811 the Wahhabis ruled all Arabia, except Yemen, from their capital at Riyadh. The Ottoman sultan, nominally suzerain over Arabia, had vainly sent out expeditions to crush them. Only when the sultan called on Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
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 of Egypt for aid did he meet success; by 1818 the Wahhabis were driven into the desert.

In the Nejd the Wahhabis collected their power again and from 1821 to 1833 gained control over the Persian Gulf coast of Arabia. The domain thereafter steadily weakened; Riyadh was lost in 1884, and in 1889 the Saud family fled for refuge into the neighboring state of Kuwait. The Wahhabi movement was to enjoy its third triumph when Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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 advanced from his capture of Riyadh in 1902 to the reconstitution in 1932 of nearly all his ancestral domain under the name Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 26,419,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, where it remains dominant. Wahhabism served as an inspiration to other Islamic reform movements from India and Sumatra to North Africa and Sudan, and during the 20th cent. has influenced the Taliban of Aghanistan and Islamist movements elsewhere.

References in periodicals archive ?
During a meeting on Sunday with a Bulgarian delegation headed by head of the Syrian-Bulgarian Parliamentary Friendship Association, MP Strahil Angelov, al-Halqi said that parliamentarians, journalists and free-thinking people must confront the tide of terrorism and wahabism by informing the world about what is happening in Syria.
While they may not eschew the money brought in from the yearly influx of Muslims in ascetic garb, Wahabism certainly rejects innovations and impurities believed to have corrupted Islam or approximate idolatry and could promote polytheism.
He cites Wahabism as the source of Islamic extremism.
Rashid Rida (1865-1935) endorsed wahabism and advocated Ibn Taliya's salafism.
Saudi Arabia has no written law barring women from driving, only fatwas, or religious edicts, by senior clerics following a strict brand of Islam known as Wahabism.
He was a good and modest person and was against Wahabism and Taliban fighters," he added.
Ordinary citizens reading the newspaper know who the real enemy is, Saudi Wahabism, and grasp that in war domestic civil liberties apply only to "friends," not "enemies.
Wahabism, the hallmark of Wahabi Islam and also found in Pakistan, is an extension of Salafism.
The Muslims in Saudi Arabia follow the Fatwas and doctrines of Wahabism and enjoy close ties with Ikhwan Muslimin.
The 5,000-strong religious police oversees the adherence to Wahabism -- a strict version of Sunni Islam, which also forces women to cover from head to toe when in public, and bans them from driving.
Wahabism was the only one of these early puritanical movements to become entrenched in power and is the official doctrine of the Saudi state which is a major sponsor of puritanical Islamic education in the Muslim world (for example, the madrasah schools in Pakistan).
The more negative influences of Wahabism from Saudi Arabia, as well as the large amounts of funding flooding in from that country, have been mostly ignored.