Wahhabi


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Wahhabi

or

Wahabi

(wähä`bē), reform movement in IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.1703–1791), who was influenced by Ibn TaymiyyaIbn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad
, 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the East, and during the continuous threat of Christendom from the North and West.
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 and taught that all accretions to Islam after the 3d cent. of the Muslim era—i.e., after c.950—were spurious and must be expunged. This view, involving essentially a purification of the Sunni sect, regarded the veneration of saints, ostentation in worship, and luxurious living as the chief evils. Accordingly, Wahhabi mosques are simple and without minarets, and the adherents dress plainly and do not smoke tobacco or hashish.

Driven from Medina for his preaching, the founder of the Wahhabi sect went into the NE Nejd and converted the Saud tribe. The Saudi sheik, convinced that it was his religious mission to wage holy war (jihad) against all other forms of Islam, began the conquest of his neighbors in c.1763. By 1811 the Wahhabis ruled all Arabia, except Yemen, from their capital at Riyadh. The Ottoman sultan, nominally suzerain over Arabia, had vainly sent out expeditions to crush them. Only when the sultan called on Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
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 of Egypt for aid did he meet success; by 1818 the Wahhabis were driven into the desert.

In the Nejd the Wahhabis collected their power again and from 1821 to 1833 gained control over the Persian Gulf coast of Arabia. The domain thereafter steadily weakened; Riyadh was lost in 1884, and in 1889 the Saud family fled for refuge into the neighboring state of Kuwait. The Wahhabi movement was to enjoy its third triumph when Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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 advanced from his capture of Riyadh in 1902 to the reconstitution in 1932 of nearly all his ancestral domain under the name Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 26,419,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, where it remains dominant. Wahhabism served as an inspiration to other Islamic reform movements from India and Sumatra to North Africa and Sudan, and during the 20th cent. has influenced the Taliban of Aghanistan and Islamist movements elsewhere.

References in periodicals archive ?
Actually," the president retorted, "according to what some American officials, including Hillary Clinton, have said, Al-Qaeda was created by the Americans with the help of Saudi Wahhabi money and ideology.
The kingdom's Wahhabi Grand Mufti, Shaikh Abdul-Aziz Aal al-Shaikh, declared the attack to be "against the teachings of Islam".
The Islamic State is committed to the Wahhabi form of Islam.
Al-Sayyed stressed that terrorism cannot be fought without coordination with Syria whose people, army, leadership and religious scholars have been fighting terrorism on behalf of all the world and who have been a steadfast fortress in the face of extremism and the Wahhabi takfiri ideology.
The Wahhabi fatwa is against all the teachings of Islam - taking women for sex in war is an abomination.
Jasarevic was a member of the strict Wahhabi brand of Islam, which has risen in prominence after the Bosnian War of 1992-95.
As the Shi'ite majority in the oil-rich Eastern Province was also incited to riot against the Wahhabi rulers, King Abdullah in March 2011 ordered his elite troops to move to Bahrain to crush the rebellion.
It said that both attackers have been able to convey their message that Wahhabi Deobandi Jihadis are "peaceful people with high standard of ethics".
But there is a small minority of Wahhabis, numbering about 3,000, which the government has been cracking down on.
The AIUMB's complaint has been that central and state governments as well as political parties like the Congress and the SP only give importance to the Deobandi and Wahhabi clerics.
Shisha smoking is popular in Saudi Arabia, but it is frowned upon by clerics of the austere Wahhabi school of Islam that dominates the world's top oil exporter.
It looks as if the two Wahhabi political regimes of the region, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, have been playing a major role in all of the theaters of conflict through the use of soft power, bolstered by enormously deep pockets.