rationing

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rationing,

allotment of scarce supplies, usually by governmental decree, to provide equitable distribution. It may be employed also to conserve economic resources and to reinforce price and production controls. Originally used in community emergencies and in distributing supplies to sailors, rationing was first organized on a national scale in Great Britain during World War I, and during World War II it spread to most of the world. The methods used have varied according to the degree of rationing needed and to the products. Rationing methods include specific rationing, or allotment in terms of physical units; point rationing, the allotment of points (ration stamps) to be apportioned by the user among commodities of a given group; and value rationing, allotment in terms of expenditure. Rations may be allotted to individuals, institutions, and industrial users, or to communities, as in rural areas of undeveloped countries. In universal rationing, ration currency is issued to everyone in equal amounts; in differential rationing, the allocation is based on need and may vary according to occupation, age, sex, or health. In the so-called flow-back system, ration currency, usually distributed by the government to the consumer, moves upward from the consumer level to the manufacturer or processor as the product moves down. During World War II, rationing in the United States was administered by the Office of Price AdministrationOffice of Price Administration
(OPA), U.S. federal agency in World War II, established to prevent wartime inflation. The OPA issued (Apr., 1942) a general maximum-price regulation that made prices charged in Mar., 1942, the ceiling prices for most commodities.
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Bibliography

See W. A. Nielander, Wartime Food Rationing in the United States (1947).

References in periodicals archive ?
The inflation, not the war or revolution, terminated wartime rationing in Germany.
Shortly afterwards, the man gave Mr Elsbury pounds 50 worth of sweets - worth a small fortune because of wartime rationing.
For brief discussions of wartime rationing, see John Mortun Blum, V was for Victory: Politics and American Culture During World War II (New York, 1976), p.
But Joan loved her time up there, making friends with a local farming family, who used to give her eggs, a precious commodity during wartime rationing, and returned to visit them for many years.
He said: "Far from 'all being in it together', the rich are getting richer while working families are taking the biggest hit on their standards of living since wartime rationing.
Wartime rationing, coupons and identity cards bring home the challenging realities of life on the Home Front, highlighting the important role of the local shop in the community.
Wartime rationing, the Utility Clothing Scheme and a call for everyone to make do and mend also threatened to extinguish any hope fashion-conscious women had of maintaining a glamorous facade in the face of adversity.
LOCK-UP: OJ Simpson in prison in 1995 CUPPA CHEER: A family taking tea at the end of wartime rationing in 1952
This was an age of wartime rationing on Teesside, when ICI was simply The Works and when the average semi cost just over pounds 2,000.
All of this was illegal at a time when everyone, including Bevan's Ebbw Vale constituents, was still subject to the austere wartime rationing regime that was not finally abolished until 1954.
When a freighter runs aground in fog on the closeknit Hebridean island of Todday, the locals are delighted to learn the boat is laden with cases of whisky, supplies of which have been depleted on the island following wartime rationing.

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