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in zoology, organ found in bees, many wasps, some ants, and in scorpions and sting rays, used defensively as well as to kill or paralyze prey. In the bee and the wasp the venomvenom
or zootoxin,
any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct.
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 is produced by glands associated with the ovipositor (egg-laying organ) of the female. As symptoms differ, it is assumed that the venom of each species of insect probably has slightly different chemical properties. The bee's "acid gland" produces histamine and proteinlike substances that are extremely dangerous to persons with specific allergies to them. Adrenaline injections may be lifesaving in such cases. In the honeybee the sting is a minute needle with tiny serrated edges, the teeth of which point backward. This makes it hard for the insect to pull the organ loose and often results in the fatal loss of the sting, the poison gland, and part of the intestine. Hornets, yellow jackets, and other wasps have sharp, smooth stings that can be used repeatedly. A few ants produce formic acid as a venom. The scorpion kills its prey with poison injected by a curved spine at the tip of its tail; the wound is painful to human adults and may be fatal to children. Strictly speaking, spiders bite rather than sting, since they inject their venom by means of fanglike cheliceras. Coelenterates, e.g., the hydra, jellyfish, and certain corals, are equipped with stinging capsules (nematocysts) consisting of a trigger mechanism that, when stimulated, raises the hydrostatic pressure of the cell so that hollow venom-bearing threads are ejected with enough force to pierce the prey. The larger coelenterates, e.g., the Portuguese man-of-war and Cyanea, are dangerous to man. The stingrays, or stingarees, have long whiplike tails bearing one to three sharply toothed, bony, poisonous stingers capable of inflicting painful wounds.


1. a skin wound caused by the poison injected by certain insects or plants
2. pain caused by or as if by the sting of a plant or animal
3. a sharp pointed organ, such as the ovipositor of a wasp, by which poison can be injected into the prey
4. Slang a trap set up by the police to entice a person to commit a crime and thereby produce evidence


A parallel dialect of Scheme intended to serve as a high-level operating system for symbolic programming languages. First-class threads and processors and customisable scheduling policies.

E-mail: <>.

["A Customizable Substrate for Concurrent Languages", S. Jagannathan et al, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1992].
References in periodicals archive ?
The majority of respondents also reported success in the treatment of wasp stings (93.
Wasp stings can trigger the release of chemicals, including histamine, from the immune system into the bloodstream.
but nobody thought a wasp sting would produce the terrible results it has.
For bee stings apply bicarbonate, for a wasp sting, apply vinegar for relief.
Swansea's new Curtis Cup player Sarah Jones was forced to pull out of the championship last night because of a wasp sting.
But he added: "The answer [to those questions] is that nobody thought a wasp sting might produce a terrible fatal injury.
A GREAT gran almost died because of a wasp sting she suffered three years ago.
TOP cartoonist Malky McCormick yesterday told how he almost died from a wasp sting.
The Sheffield United boss claims Wembley should follow the lead of the Italians who cleared Cannavaro when he failed a drugs test for taking medication for a wasp sting.
There are pollen grains in full colourful bloom, a wasp sting, moth eggs waiting to hatch and bed bugs in full march along a single strand of a sheet.
But here's Top Gear motormouth Jeremy Clarkson looking as though he's just come out of intensive care - despite nothing worse than a wasp sting.