Surface Runoff

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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.

Surface Runoff


movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.


References in periodicals archive ?
Check the sprinkler systems to ensure there is no water runoff.
The scientific data collected at the Pontbren scheme in Powys, has shown conclusively that strategically planted, narrow, fenced shelterbelts of trees across slopes capture water runoff from the pasture above and allow it to soak more rapidly into the soil.
They will measure the quantity and quality of the water runoff from the green roof and compare it to the control roofs.
While government agencies try to craft and implement development and zoning standards to help reduce storm water runoff problems caused by commercial and industrial entities, there is still much that individuals can do to reduce their impact as well.
Despite the vastness of this non-renewable resource, the International Joint Commission's final report says less than one per cent of Great Lakes water is renewed annually by precipitation, surface water runoff, and inflow from groundwater sources.
Deftly covering laws concerning such issues as water runoff and flooding, trees that hang over property line, problems with neighboring businesses, noisy neighbors, unclear boundary lines, blocked views, high or unsightly "spite" fences, dangerously deteriorating fences, dangers to children, and so much more, Neighbor Law is a complete and thorough compendium ideal for non-specialist general readers wanting to know (and be able to enforce) their rights as a property owner in a neighborhood of property owners.
Children playing on tire crumb could potentially be exposed by ingestion of the product directly, by ingestion of surface water runoff through the product, by inhalation of dust, or by skin contact with the material or surface water runoff.
Putting a turbidity sensor in crop fields may lead to better monitoring and estimating of soil being lost to water runoff, according to an Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientist.
The First Street Stormwater Retention Basin (FSSRB) was designed to collect urban storm water runoff from a portion of the City of Pocatello, ID.
These include reductions in persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances, sustainable development, sediment strategies and non-point water runoff sources.
According to AP, although the Exxon station has been identified as a likely source of the contamination, ExxonMobil cites in the report such potential contributory factors as other, now-closed area filling stations and storm water runoff.