Water supply engineering
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Water supply engineering
A branch of civil engineering concerned with the development of sources of supply, transmission, distribution, and treatment of water. The term is used most frequently in regard to municipal water works, but applies also to water systems for industry, irrigation, and other purposes.
Water obtained from subsurface sources, such as sands and gravels and porous or fractured rocks, is called ground water. Ground water flows toward points of discharge in river valleys and, in some areas, along the seacoast. The flow takes place in water-bearing strata known as aquifers. In an unconfined stratum the water table is the top or surface of the ground water. It may be within a few inches of the ground surface or hundreds of feet below.
Wells are vertical openings, excavated or drilled, from the ground surface to a water-bearing stratum or aquifer. Pumping a well lowers the water level in it, which in turn forces water to flow from the aquifer. Thick, permeable aquifers may yield several million gallons daily with a drawdown (lowering) of only a few feet. Thin aquifers, or impermeable aquifers, may require several times as much drawdown for the same yields, and frequently yield only small supplies.
Dug wells, several feet in diameter, are frequently used to reach shallow aquifers, particularly for small domestic and farm supplies. They furnish small quantities of water, even if the soils penetrated are relatively impervious. Large-capacity dug wells or caisson wells, in coarse sand and gravel, are used frequently for municipal supplies. Drilled wells are sometimes several thousand feet deep.
The distance between wells must be sufficient to avoid harmful interference when the wells are pumped. In general, economical well spacing varies directly with the quantity of water to be pumped, and inversely with the permeability and thickness of the aquifer. It may range from a few feet to a mile or more.
Specially designed pumps, of small diameter to fit inside well casings, are used in all well installations, except in flowing artesian wells or where the water level in the well is high enough for direct suction lift by a pump on the surface (about 15 ft or 5 m maximum). Well pumps are set some distance below the water level, so that they are submerged even after the drawdown is established. See Well
Natural sources, such as rivers and lakes, and impounding reservoirs are sources of surface water. Water is withdrawn from rivers, lakes, and reservoirs through intakes. The simplest intakes are pipes extending from the shore into deep water, with or without a simple crib and screen over the outer end. Intakes for large municipal supplies may consist of large conduits or tunnels extending to elaborate cribs of wood or masonry containing screens, gates, and operating mechanisms. Intakes in reservoirs are frequently built as integral parts of the dam and may have multiple ports at several levels to permit selection of the best water. See Dam, Reservoir
The water from the source must be transmitted to the community or area to be served and distributed to the individual customers. The major supply conduits, or feeders, from the source to the distribution system are called mains or aqueducts. The oldest and simplest type of aqueducts, especially for transmitting large quantities of water, are canals. Canals are used where they can be built economically to follow the hydraulic gradient or slope of the flowing water. If the soil is suitable, the canals are excavated with sloping sides and are not lined. Otherwise, concrete or asphalt linings are used. Gravity canals are carried across streams or other low places by wooden or steel flumes, or under the streams by pressure pipes known as inverted siphons. Tunnels are used to transmit water through ridges or hills; tunnels may follow the hydraulic grade line and flow by gravity or may be built below the grade line to operate under considerable pressure. Pipelines are a common type of transmission main, especially for moderate supplies not requiring large aqueducts or canals. See Canal, Pipeline, Tunnel
Included in the distribution system are the network of smaller mains branching off from the transmission mains, the house services and meters, the fire hydrants, and the distribution storage reservoirs. The network is composed of transmission or feeder mains, usually 12 in. (30 cm) or more in diameter, and lateral mains along each street, or in some cities along alleys between the streets. The mains are installed in grids so that lateral mains can be fed from both ends where possible. Valves at intersections of mains permit a leaking or damaged section of pipe to be shut off with minimum interruption of water service to adjacent areas.
Distribution reservoirs are used to supplement the source of supply and transmission system during peak demands, and to provide water during a temporary failure of the supply system. Ground storage reservoirs, if on high ground, can feed the distribution system by gravity, but otherwise it is necessary to pump water from the reservoir into the distribution system. Circular steel tanks and basins built of earth embankments, concrete, or rock masonry are used. Elevated storage reservoirs are tanks on towers, or high cylindrical standpipes resting on the ground. Storage reservoirs are built high enough so that the reservoir will maintain adequate pressure in the distribution system at all times. Elevated tanks are usually of steel plate, mounted on steel towers, but wood is sometimes used for industrial and temporary installations.
Pumps are required wherever the source of supply is not high enough to provide gravity flow and adequate pressure in the distribution system. The pumps may be high or low head depending upon the topography and pressures required. Booster pumps are installed on pipelines to increase the pressure and discharge, and adjacent to ground storage tanks for pumping water into distribution systems. Pumping stations usually include two or more pumps, each of sufficient capacity to meet demands when one unit is down for repairs or maintenance. The station must also include piping and valves arranged so that a break can be isolated quickly without cutting the whole station out of service.
Drinking water comes from surface and ground-water sources. Surface waters normally contain suspended matter, pathogenic organisms, and organic substances. Ground water normally contains dissolved minerals and gases. Both require treatment. Conventional water treatment processes include pretreatment, aeration, rapid mix, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and other unit processes to meet specific requirements. See Filtration, Sedimentation (industry), Water treatment
Aeration (air or oxygen into water) and air stripping (water into air) primarily are used to remove dissolved gases, such as hydrogen sulfide which causes taste and odor, and to oxidize iron and manganese.