water-borne disease

Water-borne disease

Disease acquired by drinking water contaminated at its source or in the distribution system, or by direct contact with environmental and recreational waters. Water-borne disease results from infection with pathogenic microorganisms or chemical poisoning.

These pathogenic microorganisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and helminths. A number of microbial pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route are commonly acquired from water in developing countries where sanitation is poor. Viral pathogens transmitted via fecally contaminated water include hepatitis viruses A and E. Important bacterial pathogens transmitted via fecally contaminated water in the developing world are Vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Water-borne protozoan pathogens in the developing world include Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. The major water-borne helminthic infection is schistosomiasis; however, transmission is not fecal-oral. Another water-borne helmenthic infection is dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection).

In developed countries, fecal contamination of drinking water supplies is less likely. However, there have been outbreaks of diseases such as shigellosis and giardiasis associated with lapses in proper water treatment, such as cross-contamination of waste-water systems and potable water supplies. Animals are therefore more likely to play a role in water-borne disease in developed countries. Bacterial pathogens acquired from animal feces such as nontyphoid S. enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, and E. coli serotype O157:H7 have caused outbreaks of water-borne disease in developed countries where water is not properly chlorinated. Hikers frequently acquire G. lamblia infections from drinking untreated lake and stream water. Giardia lamblia may have animal reservoirs and can persist in the environment. A recently recognized pathogen apparently resistant to standard chlorination and filtration practices is the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. This organism is found in the feces of farm animals and may enter water supplies through agricultural runoff.

Chemical poisoning of drinking water supplies causes disease in both developing and developed countries. Lead, copper, and cadmium have been frequently involved. See Cholera, Escherichia, Medical parasitology

water-borne disease

[′wȯd·ər ‚bȯrn di′zēz]
A disease transmitted by drinking water or by contact with potable or bathing water.
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References in periodicals archive ?
There's a stench everywhere as animals have died and their bodies are floating around," fuelling concern about the spread of water-borne disease, Shah said.
Officials said three people died in Port-au-Prince and five more there were suffering from the water-borne disease, which has affected 3,000 people in areas to the north.
Locals are claiming that nearly 25 villages have been affected due to the water-borne disease, as heavy rains contaminated rivers and streams, which are the main source of their drinking water.
Giuliano estimates that a total of six million people are at risk from water-borne disease.
children were threatened by water-borne disease after massive flooding wrecked
UN aid agencies now expect outbreaks of the water-borne disease will push up the death toll of 1,500.
He concluded his list with the fact that 1 child dies every 15 seconds from a water-borne disease (1.
The UN has revealed the water-borne disease has already killed 3,161 people in Zimbabwe.
Cholera is a water-borne disease which causes vomiting and acute diarrhoea and can rapidly lead to death from dehydration if not treated.
The shortage of clean water was one of the main problems confronting survivors, who also faced the risk of outbreaks of water-borne disease, relief workers said.
Every 14 seconds a person dies from a water-borne disease such as dysentery, typhoid and cholera.
Professor of Health Protection Paul Hunter said that heavier rainfall and storms, coupled with rising temperatures, could mean an increase in food poisoning cases and incidents of water-borne disease.