Watergate affair


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Watergate affair,

in U.S. history, series of scandals involving the administration of President Richard M. NixonNixon, Richard Milhous,
1913–94, 37th President of the United States (1969–74), b. Yorba Linda, Calif. Political Career to 1968

A graduate of Whittier College and Duke law school, he practiced law in Whittier, Calif.
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; more specifically, the burglarizing of the Democratic party national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.

The Watergate Break-in

On June 17, 1972, police apprehended five men attempting to break into and wiretap Democratic party offices. With two other accomplices they were tried and convicted in Jan., 1973. All seven men were either directly or indirectly employees of President Nixon's reelection committee, and many persons, including the trial judge, John J. Sirica, suspected a conspiracy involving higher-echelon government officials. In March, James McCord, one of the convicted burglars, wrote a letter to Sirica charging a massive coverup of the burglary. His letter, along with the reporting (from 1972) in the Washington Post on the break-in and the involvement of the reelection committee and the Nixon administration, transformed the affair into a political scandal of unprecedented magnitude.

The Investigations

When a special Senate committee investigating corrupt campaign practices, headed by Senator Sam ErvinErvin, Samuel James
, 1896–1985, U.S. senator (1954–75), b. Morganton, N.C. Admitted to the bar in 1919, he became a distinguished jurist, serving as a judge on a county criminal court (1935–37), the North Carolina superior court (1937–43), and the state
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, began nationally televised hearings into the Watergate affair, former White House counsel John Dean testified that the burglary was approved by former Attorney General John MitchellMitchell, John Newton,
1913–88, U.S. Attorney General (1969–72), b. Detroit. A law partner of Richard M. Nixon, he managed Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign and was made (1969) Attorney General. In Mar.
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 with the knowledge of chief White House advisers John Ehrlichman and H. R. (Bob) Haldeman; he further accused President Nixon of approving the coverup.

Attorney General Elliot RichardsonRichardson, Elliot Lee,
1920–99, U.S. government official, b. Boston. Admitted to the bar in 1949, he was (1957–59) assistant secretary of health, education and welfare under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
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 appointed (May, 1973) a special prosecutor, Archibald Cox, to investigate the entire affair; Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican party in return for political favors. In July, 1973, it was revealed that presidential conversations in the White House had been tape recorded since 1971; Cox sued Nixon to obtain the tapes, and Nixon responded by ordering Richardson to fire him. Richardson resigned instead, and his assistant, William Ruckelshaus, also refused and was himself fired. Solicitor General Robert BorkBork, Robert Heron,
1927–2012, American jurist, b. Pittsburgh. He received his law degree from the Univ. of Chicago in 1953, and was professor of law at Yale (1962–73, 1977–81). While serving as U.S.
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 finally fired Cox (Oct. 20, 1973) in what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre.

Nixon's action led to calls from the press, from government officials, and from private citizens for his impeachment, and the House of Representatives empowered its Judiciary Committee to initiate an impeachment investigation. Meanwhile, in response to a public outcry against the dismissal of Cox, President Nixon appointed a new special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, and released to Judge Sirica the tapes of the Watergate conversations subpoenaed by Cox. Jaworski subsequently obtained indictments and convictions against several high-ranking administration officials; one of the grand juries investigating the Watergate affair named Nixon as an unindicted coconspirator and turned its evidence over to the Judiciary Committee.

Responding to public pressure, in Apr., 1974, Nixon gave the Judiciary Committee edited transcripts of his taped conversations relating to Watergate; however, Nixon's actions failed to halt a steady erosion of confidence in his administration, and by the middle of 1974 polls indicated that a majority of the American people believed that the President was implicated in the Watergate coverup. On July 24, 1974, the Supreme Court affirmed a lower court ruling that ordered Nixon to turn over to special prosecutor Jaworski additional subpoenaed tapes relating to the coverup. Meanwhile, the House Judiciary Committee completed its investigation and adopted (July 27–30) three articles of impeachment against President Nixon; the first article, which cited the Watergate break-in, charged President Nixon with obstruction of justice.

Nixon's Resignation and the Aftermath

On Aug. 5, Nixon made public the transcripts of three recorded conversations that were among those to be given to Jaworski. At the same time he admitted that he had been aware of the Watergate coverup shortly after the break-in occurred and that he had tried to halt the Federal Bureau of Investigation's inquiry into the break-in. Several days later (Aug. 9) Nixon resigned and was succeeded by Gerald R. FordFord, Gerald Rudolph,
1913–2006, 38th president of the United States (1974–77), b. Omaha, Nebr. He was originally named Leslie Lynch King, Jr., but his parents were divorced when he was two, and when his mother remarried he assumed the name of his stepfather.
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.

President Ford issued a pardon to Nixon for any and all crimes that he might have committed while President. However, Nixon's chief associates, Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell, were among those convicted (Jan. 1, 1975) for their role in the affair. In addition to the governmental upheaval that resulted from the Watergate affair, the scandal provoked widespread loss of confidence in public officials and tended to foster a general suspicion of government agencies.

Bibliography

See L. Chester et al., Watergate: The Full Inside Study (1973); M. Myerson, Watergate: Crime in the Suites (1973); C. Bernstein and B. Woodward, All the President's Men (1974); P. B. Kurland, Watergate and the Constitution (1978); L. H. Larve, Political Discourse: A Case Study of the Watergate Affair (1988); S. Kutler, The Wars of Watergate (1992); F. Emery, Watergate: The Corruption of American Politics and the Fall of Richard Nixon (1994); B. Woodward, The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat (2005); J. W. Dean, The Nixon Defense: What He Knew and When He Knew It (2014).

Watergate Affair

 

a political scandal in the United States. At first it involved an investigation into the illegal acts of several persons who attempted to install a bugging device in the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C., during the election campaign of 1972.

Several members of the executive branch of the government and several White House staff advisers were found to be involved in these illegal acts, which had been undertaken with the knowledge of the Committee for the Reelection of the President. The investigation of the Watergate affair, including congressional hearings by a special Senate committee, occurred under conditions of sharp internal political struggle in the USA and of growing public awareness of the problems of complying with bourgeois democratic legality. As the political crisis intensified, the object of criticism increasingly became President R. Nixon, who resigned, under the threat of impeachment, on Aug. 9, 1974, at the recommendation of the leaders of the Republican Party.

The Watergate affair was one of a series of major political scandals in the USA, going back to the administrations of several former presidents. Watergate became the starting point for exposing other misuses of power in the USA, especially for investigating the illegal activities of the Central Intelligence Agency in the internal life of the country and its subversive activities in foreign countries.

I. P. SEVOSTIAN

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