Wax Glands

Wax Glands

 

glands that secrete wax, located in the integument of insects. They are frequently present in herbivorous species, such as bees, bumblebees, scale insects, and aphids. Wax glands sometimes consist of a single hypodermal cell, for example, in aphids. Above this cell, in the cuticle, there is a depression with an outgrowth on the bottom and no special openings (false pore). The wax exudes through the walls of the outgrowth, emerging in the form of rods or threads. Often the unicellular glands form groups resembling complex glands above which are found sections of smooth cuticle, for example, the so-called wax mirrors on segments of the abdomen in worker honeybees or in male and worker bumblebees, which construct honeycombs from wax. Less often special openings are found in the cuticle above the cells of the wax glands. Wax is secreted through these openings as, for example, in some sawflies and ladybug larvae.

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They do possess a lipid-based substance that appeared to be exuded by wax glands (Lingle et al.
DG gametophytes were grown to maturity, that is, until the first sporophytes appeared and wax glands were abundant.
However, DG gametophytes on sand generally completed the haploid portion of their life cycle including wax gland and sporophyte production (WG gametophytes did produce wax glands when left long enough in culture so that the agar substrate began to dry from age; this was rare and WG gametophytes never produced sporophytes; Fig.
These gametophytes produce lipid-based exudates from trichome-like structures, and these structures appear to be similar in morphology to wax glands of related species which are also xerophytic (Diamond et al.
Although WG gametophytes rarely complete their life cycle to sporophyte formation, but dry down with the agar and slowly produce wax glands, DG gametophytes consistently produce sporophytes in culture (Diamond and Swatzell, 2003).
Beeswax is produced from eight wax glands on the underside of the worker bee's abdomen.
Anything which irritates the external auditory canal stimulates the wax glands.