Cistercians

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Cistercians

(sĭstr`shənz), monks of a Roman Catholic religious order founded (1098) by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme, in Cîteaux [Cistercium], Côte-d'Or dept., France. They reacted against Cluniac departures from the Rule of St. Benedict. The particular stamp of the Cistercians stems from the abbacy (c.1109–1134) of St. Stephen HardingStephen Harding, Saint,
c.1060–1134, English monastic reformer. He entered the abbey at Sherborne in his youth; later (c.1077) he went to the Molesme abbey (near Châtillon-sur-Seine) in Burgundy. In 1098 he joined his abbot, St. Robert (d.
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. The black habit of the Benedictines was changed to unbleached white and the Cistercians became known as White Monks. St. Bernard of ClairvauxBernard of Clairvaux, Saint
, 1090?–1153, French churchman, mystic, Doctor of the Church. Born of noble family, in 1112 he entered the Cistercian abbey of Cîteaux, taking along 4 or 5 brothers and some 25 friends.
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 is often regarded as their "second founder." Through a return to strict asceticism and a life of poverty, the Cistercians sought to recover the ideals of the original Benedictines. They expanded greatly, especially during St. Bernard's lifetime, and at the close of the 12th cent. there were 530 Cistercian abbeys. The life and writings of St. Bernard were their guiding influence. They considered farming the chief occupation for monks and led Europe in the development of new agricultural techniques. (In England the Cistercians were important in English wool production.) The Cistercians were the first to make extensive use of lay brothers, conversi, who lived in the abbey under separate discipline and aided the monks in their farm system. In the 13th cent. relaxation of fervor diminished Cistercian importance, and by 1400 they had ceased to be prominent, their place being taken by the Dominican and Franciscan friars. Of later reform attempts, the most important was the movement begun at La Trappe, France (17th cent.); those accepting the greater austerities were known popularly as TrappistsTrappists,
popular name for an order of Roman Catholic monks, officially (since 1892) the Reformed Cistercians or Cistercians of the Stricter Observance. They perpetuate the reform begun at La Trappe, Orne dept., France, by Armand de Rancé (c.1660).
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, officially titled (after 1892) Cistercians of the Stricter Observance [Lat. abbr., O.C.S.D.], as distinct from Cistercians of the Common Observance [Lat. abbr., S.O. Cist.]. Today the difference is not great. The unit of Cistercian life is the abbey. Its members compose a permanent communal entity, with the abbeys joined in loose federation. Houses of Cistercian nuns (founded beginning in the 12th cent.) have rules and customs paralleling those of the monks; they lead contemplative lives in complete seclusion from the world. A 17th-century reform of Cistercian nuns produced the remarkable development of Port-RoyalPort-Royal
, former abbey of women, c.17 mi (27 km) W of Paris, founded in 1204. It was at first Benedictine, later Cistercian. In 1608 the abbess, Angélique Arnauld (see Arnauld, family), undertook a reform with the counsel of St. Francis de Sales.
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. Famous Cistercian abbeys include Cîteaux, Clairvaux, Fountains, Rievaulx, and Alcobaa.

Bibliography

See M. B. Pennington, ed., The Cistercian Spirit (1970); C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (1984).

Cistercians

 

a Catholic monastic order founded in France by Benedictine monks in 1098. The first monastery of the order was at Cistercium (now Cîteaux), near Dijon.

The Cistercians became influential in the 12th century, when the order was reorganized by Bernard of Clairvaux; from this time, the Cistercians were also called the Bernardines. The rule of the order, prescribing physical labor and an ascetic way of life, was adopted in 1119. By the beginning of the 14th century, the Cistercians were one of the richest and most important orders in Catholic monasticism, numbering 700 monasteries and convents in France, Germany, and other European countries. The Cistercians were used by the papacy to spread Catholicism in Eastern Europe. In the 14th century, the order fell into decline. In the 17th century, it temporarily revived in the course of the struggle against Protestantism. At this time the Trappists, an order with an even stricter rule, were formed as an offshoot of the Cistercians. In the mid-1970’s, the Cistercians, including the Trappists, numbered about 6,000.

Cistercians

Roman Catholic monastic order observing strict asceticism, founded in 1098. [Christian Hist.: EB, II: 948]
References in periodicals archive ?
The white monk prays that these lean Children of Ham will be washed clean by the spirit and say of the Lord and made as white as the light of day; made to sparkle the way the little Dutch children wanted to make their African playmate shine from and take to Snow-white Soap.
The white monk, by the way, prays that the white Venus and the black eunuch, seen together like white on rice, will remain cool, nice and chaste.
Jill, who has run her White Monk Tearooms for the past seven years from smaller premises in the village, is celebrating her move into the new centre, which has been converted with the help of a pounds 64,656 grant from Defra's Rural Enterprise Scheme and support from the Lord Crewe's Charity.
According to Lester, the women of central France, subject to the immense gravitational force exerted by the local Bernardine culture, developed a penitential piety that accorded strongly with that of the White Monks.
Rievaulx Abbey and its Social Context, 1132-1300 is a valuable contribution to the growing body of information on the circumstances that allowed the phenomenal expansion of the Cistercian Order in the second half of the twelfth century and on the experiences of the monks and their lay and ecclesiastical benefactors and antagonists as the White Monks became settled fixtures on the medieval landscape.
The Cistercians, white monks, led an austere life and employed lay brothers to work the farms so the choir monks were free for spiritual duties.
5-mile walk On the Trail of the White Monks, starting at Baybridge picnic area, Blanchland, on the Durham/Northumberland border at 10.