Carmelites

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Carmelites

(kär`məlīts), Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars. Originally a group of hermits, apparently European, living on Mt. Carmel in Palestine, their supervision was undertaken (c.1150) by St. Berthold. In 1238 they moved to Cyprus, and thence to Western Europe. St. Simon Stock (d. 1265), an Englishman, was their second founder. He transformed them into an order of friars resembling Dominicans and Franciscans and founded monasteries at Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Bologna. They rapidly became prominent in university life. An enclosed order of Carmelite nuns was established. The Carmelites, like other orders, declined in the 15th cent. They were revived by St. TheresaTheresa or Teresa, Saint
(Theresa of Ávila) , 1515–82, Spanish Carmelite nun, Doctor of the Church, one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the greatest mystics, and a leading
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 (of Ávila) and St. John of the CrossJohn of the Cross, Saint,
Span. Juan de la Cruz, 1542–91, Spanish mystic and poet, Doctor of the Church. His name was originally Juan de Yepes. He was a founder of the Discalced Carmelites and a close friend of St.
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 in 16th-century Spain. These great contemplatives gave the order a special orientation toward mysticism. Their reformed branch is the Discalced (or Barefoot) Carmelites; it is now more numerous than the Carmelites of the Old Observance. The Discalced Carmelites cultivate the contemplative life in all aspects, and they have produced many works on mystical theology. St. TheresaTheresa or Thérèse, Saint
(Theresa of Lisieux), 1873–97, French Carmelite nun, one of the most widely loved saints of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Alençon.
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 (of Lisieux) is a well-known Discalced Carmelite of the 19th cent. In 1790 the first community came to the United States and settled near Port Tobacco, Md. There are presently about 6,900 priests and brothers living in Carmelite communities, with 500 living in the United States.

Bibliography

See E. A. Peers, Spirit of Flame (1944, repr. 1961); P. Rohrback, Journey to the Carith (1966).

Carmelites

 

members of a Catholic mendicant monastic order, founded in the second half of the 12th century in Palestine by the Italian crusader Berthold.

The Carmelites’ first monastic community was located on Mount Carmel (hence the name). Their rule was approved byPope Honorius III in 1226. After the failure of the Crusades, theCarmelites moved to Western Europe (13th century), whereunder Pope Innocent IV they were turned into a mendicantorder in 1245 or 1247. In the 16th century the order was againreformed, after which it split into two branches (the Carmelitesand the Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites). In 1972 the ordernumbered about 8, 000 monks; the women’s order of Carmelites(established in the 15th century) numbered more than 12, 000nuns.

References in classic literature ?
Pursuing the narrow intricacies of the streets which at that time tended westward near the Middlesex shore of the river, my readiest access to the Temple was close by the river-side, through Whitefriars.
As it seldom happened that I came in at that Whitefriars gate after the Temple was closed, and as I was very muddy and weary, I did not take it ill that the night-porter examined me with much attention as he held the gate a little way open for me to pass in.
By the cloisterly Temple, and by Whitefriars (there, not without a glance at Hanging-Sword Alley, which would seem to be something in his way), and by Blackfriars Bridge, and Blackfriars Road, Mr.
His lordship was one of the governors of that famous old collegiate institution called the Whitefriars.
The waterside character pulled his drowned cap over his ears with both hands, and making himself more round-shouldered than nature had made him, by the sullen and persistent slouch with which he went, went down the stairs, round by the Temple Church, across the Temple into Whitefriars, and so on by the waterside streets.
Whitefriars Housing group plans to build a residential centre in partnership with Coventry City Council.
FAMILIES celebrated the end of Eid with a community event in Hillfields, thanks to funding from Whitefriars Housing.
Workers at Whitefriars held a dress down day last month and instead of donating money brought food to give to the Coventry Foodbank.
Whitefriars Housing Association donated the hanging baskets and a selection of geraniums, lobelias and marigolds for the project.
FIFTEEN young people have become Freemen of the City of Coventry after completing an apprenticeship with Whitefriars Housing Group.
Whitefriars Housing, which owns and manages 18,500 homes across Coventry, marked its tenth anniversary with residents, staff and Lord Mayor, Councillor Brian Kelsey, on September 24.
But Whitefriars Housing Group have installed a removable bollard outside the pathway to his flat in Bushberry Avenue, in Tile Hill North, which now makes that impossible.