Gough Whitlam

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Whitlam, Gough

(gŏf), 1916–2014, Australian political leader. Edward Gough Whitlam studied law and entered practice near Sydney after serving in World War II. A member of the Labour party, he was elected to Parliament in 1952 and rose in party circles. In 1960 he succeeded Arthur Calwell as party leader and attempted to broaden the party's appeal to the middle class in order to reverse its poor electoral showings of the 1950s and 60s. In the Dec., 1972, elections he led the party to victory against the Liberal-Country coalition that had dominated Australian politics for years. As joint prime minister and foreign minister, he emphasized better treatment for aborigines, increased nonwhite immigration, greater access to health care and university education, and other social reforms, and a limit to British and U.S. influence in Australia. Immediately after taking office, he ordered Australian troops to return from South Vietnam and ended conscription. In 1973 Whitlam relinquished the office of foreign minister. In the May, 1974, elections his government was returned to power with a small majority in the lower house. In 1975 he was dismissed by the governor-general after a budgetary and early-election impasse with the opposition-controlled senate endangered the government's ability to meet its financial obligations. Although his tenure as prime minister was relatively short, the changes he initiated ultimately transformed Australian society. He resigned as party leader in 1977 and in 1978 left politics to teach at Australian National Univ., Canberra. From 1983 to 1986 he was ambassador to UNESCO. A prolific author, he wrote many books, including Labor Essays (1980), The Cost of Federalism (1983), and The Whitlam Government 1972–75 (1985).
References in periodicals archive ?
The 11 essays in this book explore the reform agenda of the Whitlam government in Australia in the 1970s.
But he was also responsible for the most reckless act in the early days of the Whitlam government, one that gave his conservative opponents much-needed momentum after their demoralising defeat.
In 1974, with funding from the Whitlam government, the Sydney Rape Crisis Centre was established, and over the next 30 years, the organisation has continuously expanded and improved its services for those affected by sexual, domestic and family violence.
31) In various ways, these items mount a vigorous and sustained defence of Sir John Kerr's actions culminating in the dismissal of the Whitlam Government on 11 November 1975.
Although Gibbs would probably have shared many of Barwick's attitudes about the Whitlam Government that held office (1972-75) soon after his own arrival at the Court, his personal correctness and the highly traditional attitudes he took towards political neutrality held him back from the provision of legal advice to the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, during the crisis over the vote of Supply in November 1975.
It was made possible with land secured by the Whitlam Government.
There is no doubt that the turning point for the Whitlam government came in mid-1974 when it sank into internal divisions and economic tribulations at home, accentuated by global economic stagflation.
The Omega controversy that the Holyoake government speedily shut down in 1968 went on to bedevil the Whitlam government, which was deeply divided on this US military installation being constructed in Australia.
These changes come forty years after the Whitlam government abolished university fees, and nearly thirty years after the Hawke government introduced the last major reforms that restructured Australia's post school education system.
Following the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in November 1975, the Coalition Fraser Government set about gradually winding back the scheme, until it was effectively dismantled in 1981.
Not many people would be aware of Gleeson's role in the dismissal of the Whitlam government (he was one of three barristers briefed to advise the Liberal Party on the powers of the Governor-General).
Meanwhile, on 11 November 1975, the Governor General dismissed the Whitlam government and the new bill, which was scheduled for reconsideration by the Senate on 12 November, was swept away.