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(vĭ`bərk), Finnish Viipuri, Swed. Viborg, city (1989 pop. 81,000), NW European Russia, NW of St. Petersburg and near the Finnish border, on Vyborg Bay and the Gulf of Finland. A Baltic port and railroad junction, it is an export center for lumber and the terminus for a natural-gas pipeline to Germany. It also has shipyards and industries producing farm machinery, electrical equipment, furniture, and paper. In the city are a castle (c.1300), a tower (1550), several towers of the town hall (15th–17th cent.), and a fort (18th cent.).

Vyborg was a trading point for Novgorod in the 12th cent. but actually grew around a Swedish castle built there in 1293. Vyborg became a port for the Hanseatic League and was chartered in the 15th cent. In 1710 Peter the Great seized Vyborg, and it was incorporated with Finland (then under Russian sovereignty) in 1812. Before 1917, it was a key transit point for revolutionary literature, arms, and agitators going into Russia. Vyborg remained Finnish until 1940, when it was occupied by the Soviet Union. It was recaptured by Finnish forces in 1941 and was finally seized by the Soviets in 1944 and awarded to them by the Finnish-Soviet peace treaty (1947).



a city in Leningrad Oblast, RSFSR; lying along the shore and on skerries of Vyborg Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea). It is a port and a railroad junction, 129 km northwest of Leningrad. Population, 65,000 (1970). Its industries include the production of electrical apparatus, fishing equipment, and building materials; there is also food industry and light industry. It has an aircraft engineering and a medical school, a museum of local lore, and the house of V. I. Lenin, now a museum.

The people of Novgorod established a settlement on the site of Vyborg in the 12th century. At the end of the 13th century the Swedes seized western Karelia and in 1293 built the fortress of Vyborg, around which the town developed. During the Great Northern War of 1700-21, Vyborg was stormed by the troops of Peter I in 1710 and became part of Russia under the Treaty of Nystadt in 1721. In 1811, Vyborg, together with the province of Vyborg, was made part of the grand duchy of Finland. The opening of the Saimaa Canal in 1856, which linked the basin of Lake Saimaa—the most important lumbering region of Finland—with Vyborg Bay, played an important part in Vyborg’s economic development. Vyborg played an important role in the Russian and Finnish revolutionary movements; it was a smuggling center for underground literature and weapons. From September 17 until the early part of October 1917, Lenin carried on underground activities in Vyborg.

From 1918 to 1940, Vyborg formed part of the Finnish bourgeois republic. Under the peace treaty with Finland, concluded on Mar. 12, 1940, Vyborg became part of the USSR. On Aug. 30, 1941, during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, Vyborg was occupied by German and Finnish forces. It was liberated on June 20, 1944.

Architectural monuments include the castle (built in 1293, rebuilt in the years 1891-94), the Round Tower (1550), the tower of the Town Hall (dating from the 15th and 16th centuries), fortifications (1740), and the bronze statue of Peter I (erected in 1910).

On the outskirts of Vyborg, among pine forests and picturesque granite cliffs and on the skerries of Vyborg Bay, lie sanatoriums and rest houses. Vyborg has moderately warm summers (average July temperature of 17° C) and relatively mild winters (average February temperature of -8° C). The annual precipitation is about 670 mm, the driest month being March and the wettest, August. Therapeutic methods include climate therapy. Persons suffering from tuberculosis of the lungs, bones, and joints are treated in Vyborg.


Vasil’ev, M. Osada i vziatie Vyborga russkimi voiskami i flotom v 1710 g. Moscow, 1953.
Tsurikov, P. P. V. I. Lenin v vyborgskom podpol’e. Leningrad, 1960.
Vyborg: Putevoditel’. Leningrad, 1969.


a port in NW Russia, at the head of Vyborg Bay (an inlet of the Gulf of Finland): belonged to Finland (1918--40). Pop.: 80 000 (latest est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
By screening the origins of teachers' negative educational beliefs, administrators would be able to establish an action plan similar to the one proposed by Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg (2003) in which the more skilled students help those who are still in the process of acquiring computer literacy skills.
Ultimately, McLoughlin (1999) and Stafford-Levy and Wiburg (2000) concluded that online resources could address the needs of particular multicultural groups by recognizing the specific learning styles, preferences, and cultural needs of the learner.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, a behaviorist model for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) existed in which language instruction was introduced in the form of drill and practice (Butler-Pascoe & Wiburg, 2003; Stevens, 1989).
and developing learning digital environments (Norton & Wiburg,
Brisco & Peters, 1997; Clift, Veal, Johnson, & Holland, 1990; Duin, 1996; Emery, 1986; Ingesman, 1996; Kies, Williges, & Rosson, 1997; Livingston & Borko, 1989; Metzler, 1996; Riel, 1990; Smylie, 1992; Wiburg, 1997).
Karin Wiburg, professor of educational technology at New Mexico State Uriversity.
Karin Wiburg, assistant professor of instructional and information technology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.
Perhaps the most clear-cut connection between the TBL and technology has been made by Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg (2003); their work includes an important methodological discussion followed by a wide range of activities language educators can implement in order to improve second\foreign language instruction by using the TBL.
Situated cognition has important implications for learning through technology use (Norton & Wiburg, 1998) because, by changing information tools, mental activity is usually altered and restructured.
Clearly articulated in the prescriptive literature is the premise that preservice teachers' ability to integrate technology into the curriculum will be the result of two factors: their basic technology skills, and the effective modeling of technology integration by teacher educators (Panel on Educational Technology, 1997; Willis & Mehlinger, 1996; Office of Technology Assessment, 1995; Sudzina, 1993; Oke, 1992; Wiburg, 1991).