Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland

Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland

 

(Nizina Wielkopolsko-Kujawska), a low plain in Poland on the territory of the historic province of Great Poland and Cuyavia. It extends from the Notec River and the lower reaches of the Warta River on the north to the Barycz River and the middle reaches of the Odra River on the south and west. On the east it joins the Mazovetsko-Podliaska Lowlands. Altitudes are up to 227 m. The surface slopes from east to west and from the northern and southern margins to the center. It is formed of Pleistocene glacial and glaciofluvial deposits over a bedrock of Pliocene clays and Mesozoic and Permian sedimentary rocks penetrated by salt domes (there is mining of potassium salts in the region of the city of Inourocfav and in other places).

The characteristic topography is a combination of low, wide troughs (so-called lateral valleys), along which glacial waters flowed during glaciation; outwash valleys and flat or slightly hilly valleys of the main moraine; and chains of hills of the end moraine, well-preserved in the interfluvial areas. In the river valleys, crosswise sections (corresponding to the direction of the troughs) alternate with sections perpendicular to them that cut through the morainal chains. Lakes, predominately of elongated form, are numerous (the largest is Lake Gopio, area 23.4 sq km).

The climate is temperate, ranging from marine to conti- nental. Mean temperature in January is -1.5° C to -2.5° C; in July 17.5° C to 18° C; precipitation is 550-650 mm per year. On the outwash-valley areas and morainal hills there are pine and oak forests. There is farming (grains, potatoes, vegetables) and cattle raising. Important cities of the Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland are Poznan, Gorzów-Wielkopolski, Bydgoszcz, and Torun.

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