mutant

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mutant

an animal, organism, or gene that has undergone mutation

Mutant

 

a hereditarily altered form of an organism that differs from the original type in some abnormality that arose through mutation.

Organisms with hereditary changes that appear suddenly have been known for several hundreds of years. For example, at the end of the 18th century a mutant form of sheep with short legs appeared. It later became the first of the Ancona breed. After the discovery of artificial mutagenesis in the 1920’s and 1930’s, numerous mutants of microorganisms, plants, and animals were obtained and used both for actual breeding purposes and for experiments designed to determine patterns in the mutation process. Both the biochemistry of genetics and many metabolic processes were elucidated by means of biochemical mutants that had lost the capacity of the original, wild type microorganism to synthesize essential compounds, such as vitamins, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases.

S. M. GERSHENZON

mutant

[′myüt·ənt]
(genetics)
An individual bearing an allele that has undergone mutation and is expressed in the phenotype.

mutant

(programming)
Microsoft's term for a mutex which is generally used in user mode but can also be used in kernel mode. According to this terminology a mutex is only used in kernel mode.

["Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Resource Kit"].
References in periodicals archive ?
Herpes zoster associated with the Oka vaccine strain has been documented in 23 vaccinees; another 15 turned out to have wild-type virus.
Secondly, opportunities for mutational change may occur when the virus is able to circulate between the gastrointestinal tracts of susceptible persons in populations where the wild-type virus has been eliminated but vaccination rates have fallen, resulting in populations highly susceptible to infection.
determination of IC50 for the patient's isolate and the wild-type virus.
Results suggest that HIV that is resistant to some drugs, especially 3TC and the protease inhibitors, does not replicate as well as wild-type virus.
In this case series, some patients conserved the resistant viral population after antiviral pressure removal, whereas another patient (patient 1) cleared his resistant viral population to recover a fully wild-type virus.
Genotyping showed that the patient taking raltegravir had wild-type virus, whereas the patient taking efavirenz had resistance mutations consistent with exposure to that drug.
Reports of outbreaks of mild cases of chickenpox among immunized children in child care centers led to studies showing that breakthrough cases of disease after vaccination occur in about 15% of children exposed to the wild-type virus, although breakthrough disease usually produces fewer than 50 lesions; is less severe; and, generally, is half as contagious as natural chickenpox.
33) Though 64% of patients in the STI group experienced a shift to wild-type virus by 4 months, there were significantly more cases of disease progression in the STI group, compared to the control group.
The risk for congenital varicella syndrome after natural infection with wild varicella zoster virus is 1%-2%; because the virulence of the attenuated virus used in the vaccine is less than that of the wild-type virus, the risk to the fetus, if any, should be lower (1).
The article points out the possibility of recombination between a vaccine strain and a wild-type virus, which would result in a new, potentially dangerous virus.
In particular, C6 and P29 mutants were rapidly outcompeted by a wild-type strain in the absence of antibodies, and although they were able to overcome the wild-type virus in the presence of the K34C8 MAb, it was only after a slow process (Figure 2), indeed indicating a very low fitness.
During this testing period, wild-type varicella was present in the community and children either came down with the disease or were boosted from exposure to wild-type virus if they had participated in one of the vaccine's many clinical trials before the vaccine was licensed.