William Bradford Shockley
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Shockley, William Bradford
Born Feb. 13, 1910, in London. American physicist.
Shockley graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 1932 and later continued his studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1936 to 1942 and from 1946 to 1954 he worked at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. From 1942 to 1945 he worked in the Department of War. From 1955 to 1958 he was director of the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. From 1958 to 1960 he was president of the Shockley Transistor Corporation, and from 1960 to 1963, director of the Shockley Transistor unit of the Clevite Corporation. Beginning in 1958, Shockley taught at Stanford University, where he was a professor from 1963 to 1975.
Shockley’s main research has dealt with solid-state physics, including semiconductor physics, ferromagnetism, the plasticity of metals, and the theory of dislocations. In 1948, Shockley discovered the transistor effect, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1956 (with J. Bardeen and W. Brattain).
WORKSIn Russian translation:
Teoriia elektronnykh poluprovodnikov: Prilozheniia k teorii tranzistorov. Moscow, 1953.
REFERENCESLes Prix Nobel en 1956. Stockholm, 1957. Pages 59–60.
Rzhanov, A. V. “Sozdateli‘tranzistora’.” Priroda, 1957, no. 3.