Buckland, William, 1784–1856, English geologist. He was dean of Westminster from 1845. First to note in England the action of glacial ice on rocks, he did much to bring physical and natural science into high repute and was responsible for giving Oxford (where he was a student and later a fellow) an international name in science. He wrote Reliquiae Diluvianae (1823) and Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology (1836). Francis T. Buckland, English surgeon and naturalist, was his son.