Word Stress


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word stress

Word stress, also called lexical stress, is the emphasis a speaker places on a specific syllable in a multi-syllable word.
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Word Stress

 

a stress within a word that emphasizes one of the word’s syllables, as distinct from sentence, rhythmic (breath-group), or syllabic stress. Word stress may be free, as in Russian, or fixed, as in Czech, Hungarian, and Polish. Free stress may perform distinguishing, culminative (maintaining the unity of the word), or delimitative (boundary-marking) functions. Examples are zamók (“lock”)-zámok (“castle”) and rukí (genitive singular of “hand”)-rúki (nominative plural of “hand”). In the first example, word stress distinguishes different words; in the second, different grammatical forms of a word.

Word stress has a correlation with the word’s morphological structure (stem stress and inflectional stress) and is an important element of the grammatical paradigm. Fixed word stress serves only as a word-boundary marker, and in languages without vowel harmony it also has a culminative function. It has a correlation with the word’s syllabic structure and is nonparadigmatic.

Not all languages have word stress. In French, a stress in the spoken chain is not related to a word but to a rhythmic (breath) group. There is also no word stress in the usual sense of the word in a number of tone languages of West Africa. In some languages word stress may combine with syllabic stress within a word, as in Chinese. When this occurs, the two stresses are phonetically distinct: the syllabic stress is musical, and the word stress, dynamic (expiratory).

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
There are some salient features that give prominence to primary word stress that become more elaborate when we look at primary word stress from two possible angles.
Even though this study was mostly based on the misdecoding of segments, word stress and sentence stress played an important role in mishearing, not only the distribution of stress patterns, but the effect of these on the segments in question.
Of the three prosodic aspects discussed in the previous section, intonation indicates the structure of the utterance (Ahrens, 2005; Seeber, 2001), word stress reflects both meaning and syntactic function of a word (Celce-Murcia et al.
an individual vowel and word stress in the same activity), it was counted as two activities.
156-202) considers word stress and its characteristic unpredictability in Italian, which Kramer labels the "conundrum of Italian word stress placement" because ".
Most analyses of primary word stress in Dutch, German, and English assume that the location of primary stress is independent of the position of secondary stresses to the left of the primary stress.
According to Arnold (1991) the word stress has been derived from the Latin word 'stringo (stringer)' which meant to draw tight or to bind but also to graze, touch, pluck, or prune.
For stress prominence is also distributed according to usage The intonational phrase is routinely aligned with major syntactical units, but not necessarily so, and involves word stress by way of pitch changes.
Word stress is created by means of increase in breath intensity, length, pitch, and sometimes volume of the voice, and by the visual emphasis of the stroke phase of any gesture accompanying it.
The roles of word stress and vowel harmony in speech segmentation.
Duff ell argues that Insular (Anglo-) French was characterized by strong word stress, variability in the deletion of word-final schwa, and stress-timing.