X-Ray Equipment, Medical

X-Ray Equipment, Medical

 

all of the equipment designed for the use of X rays in medicine. It is used in roentgen diagnosis and roentgenotherapy. Such equipment consists of a high-voltage power supply with an X-ray source, fittings for securing and moving the emitter and for positioning the object under investigation or undergoing treatment, and an X-ray detector.

The high-voltage unit transforms the mains voltage (220 or 380 volts) into high voltage (up to 300 kilovolts), which is fed to the X-ray emitter. The emitter is an X-ray tube placed in a protective housing filled with transformer oil; the oil is also used to cool the tube. Radiation detectors are used only in diagnostic equipment. X-ray screens, X-ray film, and image converters that can transmit an intensified image to a television screen or video recorder may serve as detectors. An X-ray motion picture can be made from the image converter screen, allowing highspeed processes to be investigated. Roentgenotherapy equipment must be provided with dosimeters, casings to restrict the radiation field, and special filters for isolating the necessary radiation spectrum (0.06–2 angstroms).

Roentgen diagnostic equipment includes auxiliary technological equipment for processing photographic film (developers), for viewing X-ray photographs (negative viewers and fluoroscopes), and for providing protection against X radiation (protective screens, gloves, and aprons).

Roentgen diagnostic equipment is manufactured in portable, mobile, and stationary designs and is intended for general and special roentgen diagnosis. The power range is from 3 to 100–200 kilowatts, the current range is from tenths of a milliampere to 5,000 milliamperes, and the voltage range is from 40 to 200 kilovolts.

Roentgenotherapy equipment for intensive therapy is designed for voltages up to 250 kilovolts and currents up to 15 milliamperes; specifications for close-focus equipment are up to 100 kilovolts and 15 milliamperes.

REFERENCES

Shmelev, V. K. Rentgenovskie apparaty, 4th ed. Moscow, 1973.
Deniskin, Iu. D., and Iu. A. Chizhunova. Rentgenovskie diagnosticheskie trubki i ikh teplovye rezhimy. Moscow, 1970.
Ukazatel’ rekomendatsii po standartizatsii SEV. Moscow, 1973.

IU. A. CHIZHUNOVA

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