We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients initiating treatment for XDR
TB in 2 contiguous provinces in South Africa.
4 The presence of a device like ETT and infection by an MDR or XDR
organism can contribute to major morbidity and mortality in patients.
Values of FICmin and FICmax for clinical strains of XDR
and SPT P.
Prior treatment for MDR strains with the second-line drugs was the strongest risk factor for XDR
tuberculosis, with a relative risk of 4.
Able to accommodate both new and existing racks, the Liebert XDR
is designed to cool up to 20 kW of rack load, even in environments that may not be arranged in a hot aisle/cold aisle configuration.
The hospital environment has proven to be a favorable place to disseminate XDR
Under these circumstances, it is perhaps not surprising that South Africa has seen the re-emergence of coercive public health action (such as court orders) to enforce treatment and/or compulsory admission to hospital for XDR
In Russia, 14% of MDR-TB strains are XDR
, compared with 6% in the United States and Western Europe.
Around half a million people worldwide catch XDR
TB every year.
Daly, professor of medicine at University of Massachusetts Medical School and clinical chief of Infectious Diseases and Immunology at UMass Memorial Health Care, both in Worcester, says it's a matter of time before the first XDR
case is found in Massachusetts.
In October 2006, the World Health Organization convened an Emergency Global Task Force on XDR
TB, which revised the case definition to specify resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin among first-line anti-TB drugs, resistance to any fluoroquinolone, and resistance to at least one second-line injectable drug (amikacin, capreomycin, or kanamycin) (6).
exchangeable die rheometer is capable of three unique configurations and is said to greatly reduce machine costs.