Xenophon


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Xenophon

(zĕn`əfən), c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the YoungerCyrus the Younger,
d. 401 B.C., Persian prince, younger son of Darius II and Parysatis. He was his mother's favorite, and she managed to get several satrapies in Asia Minor for him when he was very young.
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 of Persia. These troops served Cyrus at the disastrous battle of CunaxaCunaxa
, ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the Younger and Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
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 (401 B.C.). When Cyrus was killed, the Ten Thousand were forced to flee or surrender to the Persians. They retreated by fighting their way through an unknown and hostile land, harried by Tissaphernes. After the Greek generals had been treacherously killed by the Persians, Xenophon was chosen as one of the leaders of the heroic retreat. He tells the story in the most celebrated of his works, the Anabasis (see tr. by W. H. D. Rouse, 1947). After his return Xenophon, a great admirer of the military, disciplined, and aristocratic life of the Spartans, was in the service of Sparta. He accompanied Agesilaus II on the campaign that ended (394 B.C.) in victory over the Athenians and Thebans at Coronea. The Athenians passed a sentence of banishment on him. Sparta gave him an estate at Scillus in the region of Elis, where he spent years in writing. Among his works other than the Anabasis are the Hellenica, a continuation of the history of Thucydides to 362 B.C.; works on Socrates (Memorabilia, Oeconomicus, a dialogue between Socrates and Critobulus on managing a household and a farm; the Apology, on the death of Socrates; and the Symposium) presenting a prudent and practical picture of Socrates in contrast to Plato's philosophical portrait; a eulogy of Agesilaus; the Hieron, a dialogue on despotism, named after Hiero I of Syracuse; the Cyropaedia, a romantic and didactic account of the education of Cyrus the Great; and essays on hunting, horsemanship, the ideal cavalry officer, and the constitutional practices of Sparta.

Bibliography

See study by J. K. Anderson (1974).

Xenophon

 

Born circa 430 B.C. in Athens; died 355 or 354 B.C. in Corinth. Ancient Greek writer and historian, belonged to aristocratic circles and was a member of Socrates’ circle.

Around 403 B.C., after the fall of the oligarchic government of the Thirty Tyrants, Xenophon left Athens and took part in the campaign of Cyrus the Younger against his brother, Artaxerxes II, the king of Persia (401). After the death of Cyrus at the battle of Cunaxa (401), Xenophon was elected strategos and was one of the leaders of the retreat of 10,000 Greek mercenaries across all of Asia Minor to the shores of the Black Sea; this adventure he subsequently described in his Anabasis. Xenophon subsequently served the Thracian king and later the Spartan king. He fought on the side of Sparta in the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.). In Athens he was sentenced to death in absentia. After receiving an estate in Elis from the Spartans, Xenophon engaged in farming and writing. Around 369 his civil rights in Athens were restored, but he did not return to his native city-state.

Xenophon was one of the most popular and prolific authors of antiquity (almost all of his works have come down to our own times). Xenophon’s chief historical work, a continuation of Thu-cydides’ work, is the Hellenica (in seven books). This provides, from an antidemocratic point of view, a connected exposition of events from 411 through 362. Xenophon idealized Sparta, although he also attempted to maintain his loyalty to Athens. The “Socratic works” (Apologia, Memorabilia, and Symposium), devoted to an exposition of Socrates’ philosophy, are an indispensable source on the social, economic, and political history of Greece. His treatise Oeconomicus sets forth the characteristics of a model household economy and a model citizen. In his Cyropa-edia he depicted the ideal ruler and the ideal state; in the Hieron he gave a program for transforming a tyranny into a “correct form of a state with a strong personal authority.” Xenophon’s work De Vectigalibus (Ways and Means) is an attempt to find a solution to the economic difficulties of Athens; his Agesilaus and his short essay on the constitution of the Lacedaemonians are frank defenses of the Spartan system. Xenophon also left treatises on the duties of a cavalry commander, on horseback riding, and on hunting.

Xenophon wrote simply and interestingly; he created memorable portraits and vivid pictures of everyday life and military operations. His style has long been considered a classic model of Attic speech.

WORKS

In Russian translation:
Poln. sobr. soch., parts 1–5, 4th ed. Translated by G. A. Ianchevetskii. Moscow, 1887.
Grecheskaia istoriia. With an Introduction by S. Lur’e. Leningrad, 1935. Sokraticheskie soch. Translated with notes by S. I. Sobolevskii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Anabasis. With an introduction and notes by M. I. Maksimova. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
“O dokhodakh.” Translated by E. D. Frolov. In Khrestomatiia po istorii Drevnei Gretsii. Moscow, 1964.

REFERENCES

Frolov, E. D. “Zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’ Ksenofonta.” Uch. zap. LGU, 1958, no. 251, issue 28.
Iuccioni, J. Les Idées politiques et sociales de Xénophon. Paris, 1946. Delebecque, E. Essai sur la vie de Xénophon. Paris, 1957.

I. V. POZDEEVA

Xenophon

431--?355 bc, Greek general and historian; a disciple of Socrates. He accompanied Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II and, after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa (401), he led his army of 10 000 Greek soldiers to the Black Sea, an expedition described in his Anabasis. His other works include Hellenica, a history of Greece, and the Memorabilia, Apology, and Symposium, which contain recollections of Socrates
References in classic literature ?
The parallelisms which occur in the so-called Apology of Xenophon are not worth noticing, because the writing in which they are contained is manifestly spurious.
He does not defend himself, as Xenophon has defended him, by appealing to his practice of religion.
Prominent SA Liberals Steven Marshall and Nick Xenophon will battle it out at a Liberal Leaders debate on Friday 16 February.
Poetry and hiking have more in common than you may think, especially where Xenophon Hasapis is concerned.
Contributing to the resurgence of interest in Socrates and Socratic dialogue in the 21st century, classical scholars discuss around Socrates, the immediate Socratic circle, Plato, Xenophon, and later reception.
Nick Xenophon was also allowed to stay in Parliament.
Labour and Nick Xenophon had proposed the measure saying that such a move would help the government reap more revenues than the proposed income from the levy on liabilities.
36) Xenophon distinguished Agesilaus's justice, courage (wisdom), and moderation or continence from the virtues of piety and patriotism.
29) was turned over at evens by 14-1 winner Kings Bayonet in the 2m handicap hurdle and Xenophon completed the misery when only third behind Tanner Hill (85-40) in the 2m71/2f handicap chase.
Angesichts des Ruckgangs des Unterrichts des Griechischen auf den derzeitigen hoheren Schulen, kann man nicht mehr voraussetzen, dass der Name Xenophons sofort die Erinnerung an dessen Anabasis wach ruft und der Leser sich schmunzelnd an die Wegformel erinnert "evrsuBsv S' snopsuBpoav Sia X oxaBgoug Y napaaayyaq Z" ("von dort aber marschierten sie in x Tagen Y Parasangen"), mit der Xenophon die unter seiner Fuhrung von dem Herr der griechischen Soldner zuruckgelegten Wegstrecken vom Euphrat zur Kuste des Schwarzen Meeres miteinander verband.
The ruling Liberal party has secured backing from the Palmer United Party (PUP) and independent senators Nick Xenophon and John Madigan on a contentious policy issue that brought down the country's two previous prime ministers.
Xenophon appears to be thriving at present and can strike gold in the Double M Sandwich Bar Novices' Handicap Chase at Market Rasen.