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(shē`än`) or


(shē`än`, sē`–), city (1994 est. pop. 2,114,900), capital of Shaanxi prov., China, in the Wei River valley. Situated on the Longhai RR, China's principal east-west line, it is an important commercial, tranportation, and tourism center in a wheat- and cotton-growing area. It has metallurgical, food-processing, and aerospace industries as well as plants making motor vehicles, chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, electric-car batteries, computer electronics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer.

Xianyang, one of several cities that have occupied this site, was (255–206 B.C.) the capital of the Ch'in dynasty. Excavations begun in 1974 some 20 mi (32 km) northeast of Xi'an at the tomb of Shih Huang-ti (emperor, 221–c.209 B.C.) uncovered an army of 6,000 life-size figures in battle formation. The 1990s brought the discovery nearby of some 800 royal tombs from the Han era, some containing hundreds of miniature clay soldiers, and the remains of sacrificial temples. The present city, then called Chang'an, was (202 B.C.–A.D. 25) the first capital of the Han dynasty and later the western capital of the T'ang dynasty (618–907), when it was a center of Buddhist, Muslim, and Nestorian Christian missionary activity. In the "Xi'an Incident" (1936), Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 was kidnapped by Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 and imprisoned until he agreed to form a united front against the Japanese. The site of the incident is now a lush hot-spring resort with memorial pavilions.

The city has numerous T'ang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum, housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from the T'ang dynasty; one (781) commemorates the establishment of a Nestorian church. The city wall, dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), is still visible in places. In Xi'an are botanical gardens and Northwest Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., and many other institutions of higher learning. The city has a major airport. The name sometimes appears as Hsi-an.

References in periodicals archive ?
For the introduction of new international medical standards, Universal Medical and Xi'an Jiaotong University agreed to choose a "mixed-blood" consortium.
Subject to government approval, flight UA852 will depart Xi'an at 10:30 a.
It takes us to the imperial tombs of the Han and Tang eras, allows us to witness Buddhist rituals in a famous temple and invites us to stroll through the city's Muslim district and to visit the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
floor of Jiatian International Mansion, a commercial building, the Xi'an
Google ended partnerships with Universal Internet Media and Xi'an Weihua Network, which are its major advertising agents in East and Northwest China, Marsha Wang, spokesperson for Google China, told the China Daily.
The contract concerns Lot 2 of the high-speed line that will connect Datong and Xi'an.
In China for the 2008 Olympic Games, I took the inevitable side trip to the ancient capital of Xi'an to see the revenant Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shihuang.
SIEMENS MOBILITY has been awarded an order from the China West Airport Group for a baggage handling system for the new third terminal (Terminal 3) at Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (XIY).
Scotiabank has announced that it has increased its stake in China-based Xi'an City Commercial Bank (XACB).
With daily circulations more than doubling since 1980 to 450,000 copies, China's Xi'an Daily and Xi'an Evening News has begun a pressroom modernization and capacity expansion with an order for a 75,000-cph Goss Newsliner press consisting of two four-high printing towers, one 2:3:3 jaw folder and two load-bearing reelstands.
The company established an Engineering and Development Center in Xi'an in 2007 and opened the SunFab Module Reliability Testing laboratory in 2008.
But a delegation of tourism and cultural heritage officials from Xi'an City in China experienced Wales' largest castle when they visited Caerphilly Castle recently as part of a study visit to Wales.