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(shē`än`) or


(shē`än`, sē`–), city (1994 est. pop. 2,114,900), capital of Shaanxi prov., China, in the Wei River valley. Situated on the Longhai RR, China's principal east-west line, it is an important commercial, tranportation, and tourism center in a wheat- and cotton-growing area. It has metallurgical, food-processing, and aerospace industries as well as plants making motor vehicles, chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, electric-car batteries, computer electronics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer.

Xianyang, one of several cities that have occupied this site, was (255–206 B.C.) the capital of the Ch'in dynasty. Excavations begun in 1974 some 20 mi (32 km) northeast of Xi'an at the tomb of Shih Huang-ti (emperor, 221–c.209 B.C.) uncovered an army of 6,000 life-size figures in battle formation. The 1990s brought the discovery nearby of some 800 royal tombs from the Han era, some containing hundreds of miniature clay soldiers, and the remains of sacrificial temples. The present city, then called Chang'an, was (202 B.C.–A.D. 25) the first capital of the Han dynasty and later the western capital of the T'ang dynasty (618–907), when it was a center of Buddhist, Muslim, and Nestorian Christian missionary activity. In the "Xi'an Incident" (1936), Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 was kidnapped by Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 and imprisoned until he agreed to form a united front against the Japanese. The site of the incident is now a lush hot-spring resort with memorial pavilions.

The city has numerous T'ang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum, housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from the T'ang dynasty; one (781) commemorates the establishment of a Nestorian church. The city wall, dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), is still visible in places. In Xi'an are botanical gardens and Northwest Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., and many other institutions of higher learning. The city has a major airport. The name sometimes appears as Hsi-an.

References in periodicals archive ?
In the folk song solo competition the judges awarded Steven Amie from USA first place with Zhang Xian, China, second and Noeleen Ni Cholla, Eire, third.
Tracing the 7,000-mile, officially unmarked route from Xian, China, to Antioch, Turkey, took the 60-something Thubron two years and led him through countries and among people he had written about as many as 40 years earlier.
Steve Brittan, managing director of BSA Machine Tools, with representatives of one of his customers, Shaanxi Diesel Engine Works in Xian, China
It is difficult to single Zhang out in a crowd of teens, but she is one of five exchange students who will return home to Xian, China, at the end of the month.
Following extensive patient studies that began in 1999, researchers at Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University in Xian, China, have concluded that ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be an efficient and safe method for the treatment of hepatic primary cysts.
2) School of Management, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China
During the October conference, held in Xian, China, each attendee was given a copy of the new Chinese translation of The Appraisal of Real Estate, 12th Edition, as well as a brochure promoting the MAI designation and the December start of designation-track education sponsored by the Appraisal Institute Education Trust.
This article is adapted from a presentation to the 14th Annual Conference Education in the 21st Century for the US-Sino Consortium of Chinese and American Professors held in Xian, China.
WRI noted that Hanoi, Vietnam and Xian, China are expected to be two of the three cities analyzed by EMBARQ according to transportation, traffic safety and air quality.
Hydro Magnesium, part of the Norwegian industrial group Norsk Hydro ASA, announced today (25 September) that it had officially opened its new plant in Xian, China.
In addition, AETI has minority interests in two joint ventures, which have facilities located in Xian, China and Singapore.