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The small carpenter bees (genus Ceratina Latreille) are a widespread and moderately diverse lineage of Xylocopinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with approximately 350 species, many of which are darkly metallic to black in coloration, although some, such as the more familiar members of the subgenus Pithitis Klug, can be brilliantly metallic (Hirashima 1969; Michener 2007).
x Trigona x (Tetragonisca) angustula Trigona (Trigona) fuscipennis Trigona (Trigona) amallhea Xylocopinae Xylocopini Xylocopa frontalis x Halictinae Augochlorini sp.
Lead author Sandra Rehan, an assistant professor of biological sciences at UNH, worked with colleagues Michael Schwarz at Australia's Flinders University and Remko Leys at the South Australia Museum to model a mass extinction in bee group Xylocopinae, or carpenter bees, at the end of the Cretaceous and beginning of the Paleogene eras, known as the K-T boundary.
1 X Eucerini Florilegus condignus (Cresson) X Melissodes rufithorax Brethes Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberq) X X Melissoptila desiderata (Holmberq) X X Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg Nomadinae Epeolini Doeringiella holmbergi (Schrottky) X Xylocopinae Xylocopini Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) augusti Lepeletier Xylocopa (Schoennherria) subcyanea Perez Xylocopa (Schoennherria) splendidula Lepeletier Halictidae Halictinae Halictini Lasioglossum (Dialictus) sp 1 X Lasioglossum (Dialictus) sp 2 X Lasioglossum (Dialictus) sp 3 Lastoglossum (Dialictus) sp.
Xylocopinae Michener and Eickwort 1966, Da Silva et al.
Nesting biology, life cycle, and interactions between females of Manuelia postica, a solitary species of the Xylocopinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae).