Sakha Republic

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Sakha Republic

(säkh`ä), formerly

Yakut Republic

(yəko͞ot`) or

Yakutia

(yəko͞o`shēə), constituent republic (1995 pop. 1,035,000), c.1,200,000 sq mi (3,108,000 sq km), NE Siberian Russia. YakutskYakutsk
, city (1989 pop. 187,000), capital of the Sakha Republic, E Siberian Russia, a major port on the Lena River. It is also a highway center and has tanneries, sawmills, and brickworks. Yakutsk was founded in 1632.
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 is the capital. The Sakha Republic is bounded in the N by the Laptev and East Siberian seas of the Arctic Ocean, in the S by the Stanovoy Range, in the W by the Central Siberian Uplands, and in the E by the Verkhoyansk Range. It also encompasses the New Siberian and Lyakhov islands in the Arctic Ocean.

More than 40% of the republic lies inside the Arctic Circle. One of the world's coldest inhabited regions, it has extremely severe winters and short summers; temperatures of −89°F; (−67°C;) have been recorded in some cities. The terrain is largely plain, with tundra in the north and taiga elsewhere. The Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma rivers cross the republic, which includes virtually the entire Lena basin. There are many lakes in the lowlands. The rivers are used for navigation (during the summer) and for flotage and have great hydroelectric potential. The Yakutsk-Skovorodino highway is the chief overland route. The republic has the Baykal-Amur Mainline (BAM), and another rail line from the Trans-Siberian RR to Yakutsk. Air transport and winter sledging are widespread.

Agriculture is possible only in the south, along the Lena and its tributaries. Wheat, barley, rye, and leaf and root vegetables are grown. Diamond mining is the republic's main industry; it is centered in Mirny, which has one of the world's largest diamond-processing plants. Other minerals include gold, tin, and uranium. Lumbering, fishing, hunting, fur breeding and trapping, livestock raising (especially horses), and reindeer herding are also important economic activities. Much lumber is exported. The Sakha Republic has printing works, food-processing plants, and factories that produce cement and other building materials, clothing, and leather footwear. Bone carving has long been a noted art among the Yakut, who make up about one third of the population; most of the remainder are Russians (50%), and there are small Evenki, Eveny, and Chukchi minorities. About half the people are urban dwellers. The republic has a university and a branch of the Siberian section of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Yakut, who speak a Turkic language with Mongolian influence, settled around the Lena River between the 13th and 15th cent. Russian colonization began after the establishment of a fort at Yakutsk in 1632. Many Yakut were converted to Orthodox Christianity, but shamanism is still practiced. Gold mining started in the middle of the 19th cent. An autonomous republic was organized in 1922 and was a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2005 est. pop. 143,420,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The country is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; by Georgia
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). It has a 205-member parliament.

Sakha Republic

, Yakutia
an administrative division in E Russia, in NE Siberia on the Arctic Ocean: the coldest inhabited region of the world; it has rich mineral resources. Capital: Yakutsk. Pop.: 948 100 (2002). Area: 3 103 200 sq. km (1 197 760 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
According to Borisov, internal migration of the population in the last two decades has led to the fact that 54% of the population lives in the central regions of Yakutia.
In Yakutia - a region of 1 million people about 3,300 miles (5,300 kilometers) east of Moscow - students routinely go to school even in minus 40 degrees.
Yakutia Airlines has begun operating Boeing's split scimitar winglets in the Russian Federation, the company said.
By late 2018, a 2,200-km pipeline section will connect the Chayandinskoye field in Yakutia to the city of Blagoveshchensk on the Russian-Chinese border.
But lumbricoid fauna of many regions of Yakutia haven't yet been studied.
According to Open Joint Stock Company The Alrosa Group, Yakutia is the largest diamond producer in the world - 27 per cent of the world's diamonds are mined there.
they had almost equal volumes of passenger and freight traffic, and SCR problems and challenges are also relevant to the Amur- Yakutia
Moscow: Nineteen people died on Tuesday when a MI-8 helicopter crashed in Russia's Yakutia region in eastern Siberia, the latest disaster to hit the country's accident-prone aviation industry, an aviation committee said.
A group of four men went missing after they reached vast Yakutia region, one of the most remote and inhospitable places in the world.
The two men disappeared in August on a river fishing expedition to the vast Yakutia region in the Russian Far East, one of the most remote and inhospitable places in the world.
International Resource News-November 2, 2012--Gazprom to construct Yakutia - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok gas pipeline by end of 2017(C)1994-2012 ENPublishing - http://www.
There are three wildfires in Yakutia, two taiga fires in the Amur region and one in Kamchatka.