Yalta


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Yalta

(yŏl`tə), city (1989 pop. 89,000), in S Crimea, on the Black Sea. Picturesquely situated near the seashore, Yalta is on the site of an ancient Greek colony. It is the largest resort in CrimeaCrimea
, Rus. and Ukr. Krym, peninsula and republic (1991 est. pop. 2,363,000), c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), SE Europe, linked with the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus. The peninsula is bounded on the S and W by the Black Sea.
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, with numerous hotels, sanatoriums, and tourist and rest homes—many of which were built as villas by the nobility before the Russian Revolution. Nearby is the town and palace of LivadiyaLivadiya
, town, S Crimea near Yalta, on the Black Sea. From 1954 part of Ukraine (then the Ukrainian SSR), it passed to Russian control in 2014 after the occupation and annexation of Crimea. Livadiya produces wine and is a noted health resort.
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, where Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met in Feb., 1945 (see Yalta ConferenceYalta Conference,
meeting (Feb. 4–11, 1945), at Yalta, Crimea, USSR, of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
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). From 1954 part of Ukraine (then the Ukrainian SSR), Yalta passed to Russian control in 2014 after the occupation and annexation of Crimea.

Yalta

 

a city under oblast jurisdiction in Crimean Oblast, Ukrainian SSR; a port on the Black Sea. Yalta is situated in an amphitheater on the southern slopes of the Iaila Ridge of the Crimean Mountains, 79 km south of the Simferopol’ railroad station, with which it is connected by trolleybus. A junction for highways to Simferopol’, Bakhchisarai, and Sevastopol’, it is connected by ship routes with Odessa, Batumi, and Rostov-on-Don. Population, 77,000 (1977). The summers in Yalta are very warm, and the winters are mild, with an average temperature of 23°C in July and 2°C in February. The precipitation totals approximately 700 mm annually.

Yalta is the center of a resort region that occupies a large portion of the Southern Coast of the Crimea. The Yalta city soviet has jurisdiction over the city of Alupka and over such urban-type settlements as Gurzuf, Krasnokamenka, Botanicheskoe, Massandra, Livadiia, Oreanda, Gaspra, Koreiz, Simeiz, and Foros, many of which are popular resorts for people seeking a mild climate. As of 1975, the area had 135 institutions for rest and treatment, including 65 sanatoriums (in 1978, Yalta had 28 sanatoriums), 18 houses of rest, and eight boarding hotels; these institutions offer a total of approximately 39,000 beds in the summer and more than 27,000 in the winter. The I. M. Sechenov Scientific Research Institute for the Study of Physical Methods of Treatment and Medical Climatology, founded in 1914, is located in the city.

An important center of tourism, Yalta is one of the main stopping points for Black Sea cruises. Seven all-Union and international tour itineraries include the city, which has two tourist centers and one mountaineering club.

Yalta is known to have been in existence since at least 1145, when it was called Dzhalyta (Galyta). It became a Genoese colony in the 14th century and fell under Turkish rule in 1475. In 1783, as part of the Crimean Khanate, it was incorporated into Russia. In 1838 it became the administrative center of a district in Tavrida Province. Yalta has been developing as a resort area since the end of the 19th century.

Soviet power was first established in Yalta in January 1918 as a result of an armed uprising staged in Sevastopol’ by workers who belonged to the Red Guards and by sailors. Soviet power was consolidated in the area in November 1920. Yalta became part of the Crimean ASSR in 1921 and of Crimean Oblast of the RSFSR in 1945 (Crimean Oblast was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954). The city was occupied by fascist German aggressors on Nov. 8, 1941, and liberated by the Soviet Army on Apr. 16, 1944. It was the scene of the Yalta Conference of 1945.

Near Yalta are the ruins of the Isar fortification and remnants of a temple in the Iograf Cave, both dating from the Middle Ages. Construction of the central part of Yalta began in the mid-19th century. The main thoroughfare was the esplanade (now the Lenin Esplanade); the central area was filled with private boarding houses, dachas, and hotels, including the Rossiia (1875; now the Tavrida). A city theater was built in 1904.

The period from 1951 to 1956 saw the construction of Soviet Square (the central square) and the building that houses the Yalta city committee of the Communist Party of the Ukraine (1955; completed 1972). Other notable buildings include the house of trade (1971), the Chernomorskii Sanatorium (1972), and the Ai-Danil’ Sanatorium (1973). The city has monuments to V. I. Lenin (1954, sculptor P. P. Iatsyno, architect A. S. Fomin), A. P. Chekhov (1953, sculptor G. I. Motovilov, architect L. M. Poliakov), M. Gorky (1956, sculptors I. M. Gonchar and V. G. Gnezdilov), and Lesia Ukrainka (1972, sculptor G. N. Kal’chenko, architect A. F. Ignashchenko). The first three of these monuments are made of bronze and granite.

The wine-making industry is represented by the Massandra Industrial-Agricultural Association. The city also has a fish-processing combine, a milk plant, a factory for the production of beer and nonalcoholic beverages, a tobacco fermentation plant, a headgear factory, and a plant for the production of asphalt cement. The Tavriia Production Association manufactures souvenirs.

The Magarach All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Wine-making and Viticulture is located in Yalta. Among the city’s educational institutions are a technicum of Soviet trade, a medical school, and a pedagogical school. Museums include the A. P. Chekhov House-Museum, where the writer spent the last years of his life, and a museum of local lore, which has several branches—memorial branches dedicated to N. Z. Biriukov, K. A. Trenev, and P. A. Pavlenko, a literature branch, and Fairy-tale Glade. The city has two theaters and a division of the Crimean Philharmonic Society. The Nikita Botanical Garden is in the settlement of Botanicheskoe.

REFERENCES

Vorontsov, ’E. A. Bol’shaia Ialta: Kraevedcheskii ocherk. [Simferopol’] 1968.
Sobolev, O. Ialta: Kratkii putevoditel’. Simferopol’, 1974.

Yalta

a port and resort in S Ukraine, in the Crimea on the Black Sea: scene of a conference (1945) between Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin, who met to plan the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany. Pop.: 89 000 (latest est.)
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