a thin, flexible, durable, rather long cord used in the manufacture of woven, knitted, and nonwoven fabrics. Textile yarns may be used directly or after preliminary treatment. There are three types: filaments, primary yarns, and secondary yarns.
Filaments cannot be divided lengthwise without being destroyed. These include chemical yarns, such natural yarns as raw silk, mineral yarns, monofilaments, and narrow strips of paper or film. The first three types must undergo preliminary treatment, whereas monofilaments are used directly in the manufacture of such articles as fine stockings and nets.
Primary yarns include yarns made from textile fibers, combination yarns (two or more elementary yarns joined together by twisting or some other method), and ribbonlike filaments (made by twisting bands together). The yarn may be simple, fancy, textured, or core. Fancy yarns are those whose structure is periodically altered by increased thickness or looping. Textured yarns are those whose structure is altered to increase bulk or extensibility.
Secondary yarns are usually made up of several primary yarns that have been twisted together. They may be textured or fancy.
Textile yarns vary in composition: they may be homogeneous (made from a single material, for example, cotton, wool, or rayon), mixed (made from a mixture of fibers, such as linen and lavsan), or nonhomogeneous (made from twisted rayon composite yarns). Many different types of yarns may be produced by adding supplementary processes during their manufacture, such as singeing, dyeing, and bleaching.
Textile yarns are sometimes used in the manufacture of artificial furs and bonded materials. Some textile yarns are used to make sewing thread, filters for the chemical industry, and ropes.
REFERENCESSee references under fibers, textile.
G. N. KUKIN