Yiddish language

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Yiddish language

(yĭd`ĭsh), a member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; German languageGerman language,
member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). It is the official language of Germany and Austria and is one of the official languages of Switzerland.
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).

Although it is not a national language, Yiddish is spoken as a first language by approximately 5 million Jews all over the world, especially in Argentina, Canada, France, Israel, Mexico, Romania, the United States, and the republics of the former USSR. Before the annihilation of 6 million Jews by the Nazis, it was the tongue of more than 11 million people. Growing out of a blend of a number of medieval German dialects, Yiddish arose c.1100 in the ghettos of Central Europe. From there it was taken to Eastern Europe by Jews who began to leave German-speaking areas in the 14th cent. as a result of persecution. By the 18th cent. Yiddish was almost universal among the Jews of Eastern Europe. It has generally accompanied Eastern European Jews in their migrations to other parts of the world.

Phonetically, Yiddish is closer to Middle High German than is modern German. Although the vocabulary of Yiddish is basically Germanic, it has been enlarged by borrowings from Hebrew, Aramaic, some Slavic and Romance languages, and English. Written from right to left like Hebrew, Yiddish also uses the Hebrew alphabet with certain modifications. In 1925 the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania. It served as an academy to oversee the development of the language. Later its headquarters were transferred to New York City, where in time it became the Yivo Institute for Jewish Research. Coping with the problem of dialects, this institute has done much to bring about the standardization of Yiddish.

In the eyes of many, Yiddish has significance both as the language of an important literature as well as a unique expression of the Jewish people. It is widely thought that modern Yiddish literature began in 1864 with the publication of Das Kleyne Mentshele (The Little Man) by Mendele mocher sforimMendele mocher sforim
[Yid.,= Mendele the book peddler] , pseud. of Sholem Yakov Abramovich
, 1836–1917, Yiddish novelist. Born in Minsk, and orphaned at 14, he traveled with beggars through Ukraine.
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. Among the best-known writers in Yiddish literature are Sholem AleichemAleichem, Sholem
[Heb.,=Peace be upon you!], pseud. of Sholem Rabinowitz
, 1859–1916, Yiddish author, b. Russia. One of the great Yiddish writers, he is best known for his humorous tales of life among the poverty-ridden and oppressed Russian Jews of the late 19th
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, I. L. PeretzPeretz or Perez, Isaac Loeb
, 1852–1915, Jewish poet, novelist, playwright, and lawyer, b. Zamosc, Poland.
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, Isaac Meier Dik, and Isaac Bashevis SingerSinger, Isaac Bashevis
, 1904–91, American novelist and short-story writer in the Yiddish language, younger brother of I. J. Singer, b. Leoncin, Poland (then in Russia).
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, the first writer in the language to be awarded (1978) the Nobel Prize in Literature. Thousands of Yiddish works are housed at the Yiddish Book Center at Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass.

Bibliography

See M. I. Herzog et al., ed., The Field of Yiddish: Studies in Language, Folklore, and Literature (1969); M. Weinreich, History of the Yiddish Language (1980); D. Katz, Grammar of the Yiddish Language (1987); D. G. Roskies, A Bridge of Longing: The Lost Art of Yiddish Storytelling (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
These two movements clearly have their antecedents in Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism and in YIVO and Workmen's Circle Yiddishism, but the advent of the new left, ethnic consciousness, and identity politics has put a whole new spin on those old ideas.
He argues that secular Judaism and Yiddishism disappeared because Jews have been "loved to death.
His lyricism was a Yiddish inspiration; and the Yiddishism and the socialism were the same.
These are Zionism, Jewish Socialism, and Yiddishism, and the American Judaism of Holocaust and Redemption.
In retrospect, we might view Zionism and Yiddishism as competitors for the loyalty of those who have, in this century, believed that Jewish life could be perpetuated in secular form; the Zionists insisted that this miracle could take place only in the Land of Israel, the Yiddishists believed it could happen in the Diaspora.
a person who sprinkles his conversation with Yiddishisms.
He was an equally proud Jew, who cherished his Jewish heritage, sprinkled his speech with Yiddishisms, and could not have been more proud of the rebirth of Israel.
The Jewish language Simms employs only seems to work if we accept that "consciously or not" Jews are always engaging with particular Jewish thought processes or ways of being that take into account everything from the Bible through the Holocaust, Kabbalistic thought, contemporary Israel, and American-Jewish Yiddishisms.
I enjoy Stewart's Yiddishisms, Jewish jokes and occasional confessions that he doesn't know much about his religion (though his writers clearly do).
While Ginsberg's use of the comic Jewish stereotype of the Jewish mother, right down to the use of Yiddishisms and the melodramatic, manipulative response, certainly might offend some Jews, it seems to be somewhat affectionate as well as critical, and is thus an indication of Ginsberg's own conflicted identification with the Jewish people.
Sammy is a tenacious journalist who's given to peppering her conversation with Yiddishisms.
The piece weaves contemporary modern dance with humorous Yiddishisms ("I am shvitzing [sweating]--that is very Jewish," says the character).