Yukaghir


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Yukaghir

 

(self-designation, odul, detkil), a small nationality in Eastern Siberia. The Yukaghir number approximately 800 persons (1979, census). Their language is Yukaghir. One group of Yukaghir lives in the tundra in Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR; another group lives in the taiga in Verkhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR, and Srednekanskii Raion, Magadan Oblast.

At the beginning of Russian colonization, in the 17th century, Yukaghir clan tribal groups, including the Chuvans, Khodyns, and Anauls, occupied the territory from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr’ River. The number of Yukaghir decreased between the 17th and 19th centuries owing to epidemics, internal feuding, and the tsarist colonial policies. Some Yukaghir were assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens, and Russians. Social relations among the Yukaghir preserved features of the period of transition from a matrilineal clan system to a patriarchy. There were vestiges of matrilocal residence. Despite the Christianization of the Yukaghir in the 19th century, clan shamans continued to have great influence.

Since the establishment of Soviet power, the Yukaghir economy and culture have undergone radical changes. The Yukaghir are now members of sovkhozes that specialize in hunting and reindeer herding.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
lukagiry. Novosibirsk, 1975.
Jochelson, W. The Jukaghir and the Jukaghirized Tungus. Leiden-New York, 1926.

Yukaghir

 

the language of the Yukaghir. Yukaghir is spoken in the Yakut ASSR. The total number of speakers is 288 (1970, census).

Yukaghir belongs to the Paleosiberian (Paleo-Asiatic) languages. Some scholars have suggested similarities between Yukaghir and the Uralic and Altaic languages. Yukaghir has two dialects, Tundra and Kolyma, which differ from each other considerably. The phoneme w is absent in the Kolyma dialect, and the fricatives š and ž are absent in the Tundra dialect.

Nouns, pronouns, cardinal numbers ending in -I2e, action nouns, and adverbs of place are declined. Nouns have seven cases. Verbs, including the lexicosemantic groups of qualitative, quantitative, and pronominal verbs, are conjugated. There are no adjectives; adjectival meanings are expressed by means of qualitative verbs. Special grammatical forms exist for expressing logical stress. In addition to native Yukaghir words, the vocabulary contains cognates of Nenets words, as well as borrowings from Even, Yakut, and Russian. Yukaghir is an unwritten language.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. “Iukagirskii iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 5. Leningrad, 1968. (Contains bibliography.)

I. K. SAZONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
the functional scope of the focus markers (Maslova 1997), the other Yukaghir language, or presented equivocally, e.
Jochelson, Waldemar (1926) The Yukaghir and Yukaghirized Tungus.
To the east of the Taymyr Peninsula, the human populations become even more diverse in terms of their origins and languages: The Evenki, Yakuts of Turkish origin, Yukaghir of Samoyed origin, Chukchi and Inuit, without including the mixed-race peoples, whose origins are relatively distinct, but whose cultural identity is consolidated, such as the Dolgan, Chuvases, Kolimchans or Kamchadales or Itelmen.
The image, entitled "Yukaghir Epistle," depicts a letter sent by a young woman of the Yukaghir tribe of northeastern Siberia to her estranged boyfriend (try interpreting the image before looking at its explanation in the caption, which appears on the following page).
Willerslev then lives among the Yukaghir, learning more about their culture and hunting techniques until the Russian political situation resolves enough for him to return safely to Denmark.
Revitalization strategy for Yukaghir language and culture.
Typically the suppletive split is between first and second person recipients on the one hand and third person recipients on the other, as for example tadi:- 'give to third person' versus kej- 'give to first or second person' in Kolyma Yukaghir (Northeastern Siberia, Maslova 2002, cited in Comrie 2003: 267), or byi 'give to third person' and bo 'give to first or second person' in Lepcha (Tibeto-Burman, Mainwaring 1876: 127-128).
Sino-Finnic): Lappic vuollel 'under', vuole/viille 'lower part', viilne/vuiln/vueiln/voiln/ 'under'; Mordvin al 'nether', alo/ala 'under'; Mari ul-/ulo- 'nether', ulna/ulno 'under'; Udmurt ul 'nether', ulin/ulan 'under'; Komi ulin/uvin 'under'; Mansi jala'n/joln/jalan/jalan 'below'; Khanty il/it/il 'nether'; Hungarian al- 'sub-'; Nenets nil-/nir- 'nether', yilna 'under'; Enets ido/iro 'bottom', isone 'under'; Nganasan nilea 'nether', nileanu 'under'; Selkup iil/il/rl 'bottom'; Kamas jilda 'downwards'; Yukaghir -al 'under'.
For instance, in Yukaghir verbal forms with the so called action nominal (imja dejstvija) suffix can be used as direct objects, as attributes of nouns and as the only predicate of independent clauses (Kalinina 2001: 47-48).
Eurasiatic, in turn, includes Etruscan, Indo-European, Uralic, Yukaghir, Altaic, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Gilyak, and Eskimo-Aleut.