Yukaghir

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Yukaghir

 

(self-designation, odul, detkil), a small nationality in Eastern Siberia. The Yukaghir number approximately 800 persons (1979, census). Their language is Yukaghir. One group of Yukaghir lives in the tundra in Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR; another group lives in the taiga in Verkhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR, and Srednekanskii Raion, Magadan Oblast.

At the beginning of Russian colonization, in the 17th century, Yukaghir clan tribal groups, including the Chuvans, Khodyns, and Anauls, occupied the territory from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr’ River. The number of Yukaghir decreased between the 17th and 19th centuries owing to epidemics, internal feuding, and the tsarist colonial policies. Some Yukaghir were assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens, and Russians. Social relations among the Yukaghir preserved features of the period of transition from a matrilineal clan system to a patriarchy. There were vestiges of matrilocal residence. Despite the Christianization of the Yukaghir in the 19th century, clan shamans continued to have great influence.

Since the establishment of Soviet power, the Yukaghir economy and culture have undergone radical changes. The Yukaghir are now members of sovkhozes that specialize in hunting and reindeer herding.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
lukagiry. Novosibirsk, 1975.
Jochelson, W. The Jukaghir and the Jukaghirized Tungus. Leiden-New York, 1926.

Yukaghir

 

the language of the Yukaghir. Yukaghir is spoken in the Yakut ASSR. The total number of speakers is 288 (1970, census).

Yukaghir belongs to the Paleosiberian (Paleo-Asiatic) languages. Some scholars have suggested similarities between Yukaghir and the Uralic and Altaic languages. Yukaghir has two dialects, Tundra and Kolyma, which differ from each other considerably. The phoneme w is absent in the Kolyma dialect, and the fricatives š and ž are absent in the Tundra dialect.

Nouns, pronouns, cardinal numbers ending in -I2e, action nouns, and adverbs of place are declined. Nouns have seven cases. Verbs, including the lexicosemantic groups of qualitative, quantitative, and pronominal verbs, are conjugated. There are no adjectives; adjectival meanings are expressed by means of qualitative verbs. Special grammatical forms exist for expressing logical stress. In addition to native Yukaghir words, the vocabulary contains cognates of Nenets words, as well as borrowings from Even, Yakut, and Russian. Yukaghir is an unwritten language.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. “Iukagirskii iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 5. Leningrad, 1968. (Contains bibliography.)

I. K. SAZONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Mammoths, like the one found in Yukagir, weren't small animals: They measured 4 meters (12 feet) tall, and tipped the scales at 7,300 kilograms (16,000 pounds).
We found the remains of leaves, grasses, and twigs inside the stomach of the Yukagir mammoth," says Dick Mol, a paleontologist (PALE-ee-on-TOL-uh-jist) at the Museum of Natural History in the Netherlands.
Japanese scientists in Tokyo are going to use a special computer to see what's inside the Yukagir mammoth," says Agenbroad.
The Yukagir mammoth will be on display in a freezing lab at this spring's Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan.
The county government's refusal to allocate this land to the Yukagir obshchina angers members on several accounts.
20) Named after the first Yukagir writer, who was repressed and assassinated in the 1930s.
The obshchina, now representing all the Yukagirs in Nelemnoe still officially employed in traditional activities (and their family members), put forward its `land claim' based on the lands that its members, or their ancestors, had used prior to collectivization.
Many Yukagirs feel that their involvement in the territory's management would ensure better compliance with environmental regulations.