Zeeland


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Zeeland

(zē`lənd, Dutch zā`länt), province (1994 pop. 363,900), c.650 sq mi (1,680 sq km), SW Netherlands, bordering on Belgium in the south and the North Sea in the west. The main cities are MiddelburgMiddelburg
, city (1994 pop. 40,118), capital of Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, on the former island of Walcheren. It is a manufacturing and tourist center. Chartered in 1217, Middelburg developed into an important medieval trade center.
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 (the capital) and VlissingenVlissingen
or Flushing
, city (1994 pop. 44,211), Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, on the southern coast of the former island of Walcheren. Its manufactures include shipbuilding, chemicals, and gears.
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. The province consists of a strip of FlandersFlanders
, former county in the Low Countries, extending along the North Sea and W of the Scheldt (Escaut) River. It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs., Belgium; Nord and Pas-de-Calais depts., France; and (to a small extent) Zeeland prov., the Netherlands.
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 that is adjacent to Belgium and various former islands located in the Scheldt estuary; the chief regions (now a series of interconnected peninsulas) are WalcherenWalcheren
, region, Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, on the North Sea at the entrance to the Scheldt estuary. Middelburg is the chief city and is also the capital of Zeeland prov. Vlissingen is also important.
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, North and South BevelandBeveland, North, and South Beveland
, peninsula developed from the above former islands, Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, in the Scheldt estuary.
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, Schouwen-Duiveland, and Tholen. Much of the land is below sea level and protected by dikes. Agriculture, dairying, and fishing are the chief occupations; there is some industry, notably shipbuilding. Zeeland, a part of Holland from the 10th cent., later became a separate county, but it continued to be ruled by the counts of HollandHolland,
former county of the Holy Roman Empire and, from 1579 to 1795, chief member of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Its name is popularly applied to the entire Netherlands. Holland has been divided since 1840 into two provinces, North Holland and South Holland.
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, and its history was largely identical with that of Holland. In 1579, Zeeland joined the Union of Utrecht as one of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The province was badly damaged by flooding in 1953.

Zeeland

 

a province in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, mainly on the islands of the Scheldt River delta and mostly below sea level. Area, 1,700 sq km; population, 306,000 (1970). Its administrative center is the city of Middelburg. The proportion of the economically active population employed in industry is 36 percent; in agriculture, 20 percent. The region’s important industries include shipbuilding, machine building, chemicals, and petroleum refining. Grains, sugar beets, peas, flax, hops, livestock fodder, and fruits are raised. There is also a considerable oyster industry.

During the Middle Ages, the northern part of Zeeland belonged to Holland, and the central part was held jointly by Holland and Flanders, under Flemish suzerainty (according to the Treaty of Paris of 1323, Flanders renounced its claims to the area). The continental part of the province belonged to Flanders. In 1428–33, the region became a possession of the dukes of Burgundy; in 1477 (1482) it passed to the Hapsburgs, and in 1579, to the Union of Utrecht. From 1795 to 1806 it was part of the Batavian Republic; from 1806 to 1810 it belonged to the kingdom of Louis Bonaparte, and from 1810 to 1814 it was part of the French Empire. In 1814 it became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Zeeland

a province of the SW Netherlands: consists of a small area on the mainland together with a number of islands in the Scheldt estuary; mostly below sea level. Capital: Middelburg. Pop.: 378 000 (2003 est.). Area: 1787 sq. km (690 sq. miles)
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