Despite his grief over the zemstvos
, he is still "ready to discuss ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that which concerns [himself]" (18: 260).
The Journal essentially treated the zemstvos
as economic self-help mechanisms and focused on the human beings behind modernization's figures.
Average expenditure on roads by rural soviets during 1924-27 amounted to less than 1 per cent of their budgets, which generally were smaller than the budgets of the zemstvos
before the revolution.
Yet, interestingly, Frierson also shows how peasants sometimes turned to the government for sup port against the coercive energies of zemstvo
do-gooders determined to rationally assist villagers whether they liked it or not.
The Debate over the Delivery of Health Care in Rural Russia: The Moscow Zemstvo
writers were especially distinguished in this regard (the Poltava and Khar'kov zemstvos
perhaps most of all), but so too were a number of non-zemstvo
pamphleteers (many of them populists) who wrote resettlement brochures and handbooks "for the people.
The social formations that reflected this polarity--"workers," "capitalists," the "bourgeoisie"--could only be joined politically toward relatively common ends, if at all, through constructive cooperation and affiliation at the top or the formation of "blocs" in local duma and zemstvo
elections below, a widely recognized political task after the formation of the first coalition and one that continued through to the Council of the Republic in October.
The Union of Liberation, composed primarily of intelligentsia and urban liberals, and the zemstvo
movement of liberal landowners, were now openly demanding political reform.
In another essay, they assert that democratization continued during World War I as zemstvos
gained unity and took on important roles in the war effort.
Changing class values and political priorities help to explain why the zemstvos
could collect more than half a million rubles for war relief work during the war against Japan, but curtailed efforts to organize famine relief in 1906.
First, extending Thomas Porter and William Gleason's analysis of liberals' organizational skills as manifested in the Union of Zemstvos
and other historians' praise of the war industries committees, Tumanova provides an enormous amount of detail on a wide variety of civic organizations, irrefutably demonstrating that the self-starting, self-organizing capacity of Russia's educated public continued and expanded during the war.
Though not above obsequious self-promotion, he worked hard to promote literacy, improve urban conditions, develop Siberia, and defend the rights of the zemstvos