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Zlatoust(zlətəo͞ost`), city (1989 pop. 208,000), E European Russia, on the Ai River in the S Urals. It is a rail terminus and an old metallurgical center. Besides steel mills, the city has metal-engraving works and factories that manufacture farm machinery, instruments, precision castings, and clocks. Zlatoust was founded in 1754 as one of Russia's first iron industry settlements, and was noted for its swords.
a city in Cheliabinsk Oblast, RSFSR, in the Southern Urals, on the Ai River (basin of the Kama River). Railroad station on the Ufa-Cheliabinsk line, 160 km west of the city of Cheliabinsk. Population, 181,000 in 1971 (48,000 in 1926; 99,000 in 1939; and 161,000 in 1959).
Zlatoust was established in connection with the founding of the Zlatoust Mechanical Ironworks in 1754. Workers from the ironworks took part in the uprising led by E. I. Pugachev in 1774 and 1775. The city became the center for the Zlatoust Mining Okrug (district) in 1811. In the early 19th century, the first damask steel swords made in Russia were manufactured by P. P. Anosov in Zlatoust; the first cannons made from Russian steel were cast in 1860. The city became the center for Zlatoust district in 1865. In March 1903, tsarist authorities brutally suppressed a workers’ strike. The workers actively participated in the Revolution of 1905–07. Although Soviet power was established in Zlatoust in March 1918, the city was occupied by the White Guards from June 1918 to July 1919. It was liberated by the Red Army on July 13, 1919.
Since the establishment of Soviet power, Zlatoust has become an important fine-steel-making, machine-building, and toolmaking center. One of the city’s most important industrial enterprises is the Zlatoust Metallurgical Factory. There is a machine-building plant, as well as factories producing abrasives, clocks, metal structures, and precast panels used in housing construction. There is also a forge and press plant. Food and light industries comprise a meat-packing plant, dairy, and brewery, as well as footwear, garment, and furniture factories. Since the early 19th century, Zlatoust has been the center for artistic metal engraving. Steel plates and household articles are decorated with gold and silver inlay, engravings, and gilding.
Zlatoust is the site of a department of the Cheliabinsk Polytechnic Institute; technicums for industry, metallurgy, and Soviet trade; two medical schools; and a pedagogical school. The town has a drama theater and a museum of local lore.