Zollverein


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Zollverein

(tsôl`fərīn`) [Ger.,=customs union], in German history, a customs union established to eliminate tariff barriers. Friedrich ListList, Friedrich
, 1789–1846, German economist. The first professor of economics at the Univ. of Tübingen, he was elected (1820) to the Württemberg legislature.
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 first popularized the idea of a combination to abolish the customs barriers that were inhibiting trade among the numerous states of the German ConfederationGerman Confederation,
1815–66, union of German states provided for at the Congress of Vienna to replace the old Holy Roman Empire, which had been destroyed during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. It comprised 39 states in all, 35 monarchies and 4 free cities.
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. In 1818, Prussia abolished internal customs and formed a North German Zollverein, which in 1834 became the German Zollverein after merging with two similar unions, the South German Zollverein and the Central German Trade Union, both founded in 1828. Customs barriers of member states were leveled, and a uniform tariff was instituted against non-members. The customs at foreign frontiers were collected on joint account, and the proceeds were distributed in proportion to the population and resources of the member states. A rival customs union, the Steuerverein of central Germany, was also organized in 1834. A series of treaties (1851–54) joined it to the Zollverein, which then comprised nearly all the German states except Austria, the two Mecklenburgs, and the Hanseatic towns. Prussia, despite the insistence of several states, was unwilling to admit Austria to the union, but the two countries negotiated a separate tariff treaty. After the Austro-Prussian WarAustro-Prussian War
or Seven Weeks War,
June 15–Aug. 23, 1866, between Prussia, allied with Italy, and Austria, seconded by Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, Hanover, Baden, and several smaller German states.
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 (1866) a new agreement was reached by the members of the union. The newly formed North German ConfederationNorth German Confederation,
1867–71, alliance of 22 German states N of the Main River. Dominated by Prussia, it replaced the German Confederation and included the states that had supported Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War (1866).
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 entered the Zollverein in a body, and the other German states also negotiated customs treaties with victorious Prussia. The constitution (1867) of the new Zollverein provided for a federal council of customs (Zollbundesrat), comprised of personal representatives of the several rulers, and for an elected customs parliament (Zollparlament). In both bodies Prussia exercised predominant influence. In 1871 the laws and regulations of the Zollverein passed into the legislation of the newly created German Empire. Alsace-Lorraine entered the imperial customs area in 1872, and the Hanseatic cities joined in 1888. The Zollverein promoted the economic unification of Germany.

Bibliography

See studies by J. R. MacDonald (1903, repr. 1972), W. O. Henderson (2d ed. 1959), and E. N. Roussakis (1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
Here, you can also have some sense of life underground while the Ruhr Museum, situated in the former coal washery of the Zollverein Coal Mine Shaft XII, houses more than 6,000 exhibits creating a memory and display window of the Ruhr Metropolis, tracing the development of the coal industry, the history of the Ruhr, including its importance in Germany's industrial and military ambitions.
These changes provided, as it were, the material infrastructure to the possibilities made available by the Zollverein.
The Prussians desired low Zollverein tariffs in order to maximize the economic and domestic political costs to the Austrian government of joining the organization.
As it is at the awesome Zollverein project in Essen, a vast ex-mining campus which, through vision and determination, has been transformed into a thriving cultural, educational, social (they even hold weddings here), commercial - plenty of conferences - and generally vibrant UNESCO World Herit-t age Site.
Windows are also arranged in an apparently haphazard way, reminiscent of Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa's fine (but regularly imitated) Zollverein School, also in Germany.
The DZNW museum, which is housed in the former Zeche Zollverein colliery redesigned by British architect Lord Norman Foster in the late 1990s, is known locally as the 'cathedral of industrial culture' and attracts more than 140,000 visitors each year.
The first 'red dot: design agency of the year' award will be officially handed over at the annual award ceremony 'red dot award: communication design 2008' on December 3, 2008, against the spectacular backdrop of the gala hall in the Casino Zollverein at the World Heritage site Zollverein in Essen, Germany.
Dragging ourselves away from the brewery we went to the Zeche Zollverein coal museum in Essen, less than an hour from Dortmund.
Em seguida, ampliou seu território aduaneiro, unindo quase 24 milhões de pessoas -- entre as regiões Sul, Sudeste e Norte -- mediante a formação da união aduaneira ou Zollverein, em 1834, que exerceu forte influência na Revolução Industrial.
Maybe the most spectacular due to its setting is the Design School Zollverein.
During this period, there were major institutional changes in the form of currency agreements and the Zollverein customs liberalizations, as well as transport cost reductions in the form of building railways.
The German farmers were amongst the most insistent that the Australian colonies were only likely to prosper if they emulated the German Zollverein and stipulated free trade between the colonies.