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a variety of light infantry in the French colonial armies. It was recruited from the inhabitants of North Africa and from French volunteers who lived there. In the beginning of the 20th century, it was made a compulsory military service.

The first two battalions of Zouaves were created in Algeria in 1830 to conduct a colonial war in North Africa. Three regiments were formed in the middle of the 19th century, four in 1914, and six in 1939. The Zouaves participated in various wars that France fought in the 19th and 20th century, including the Crimean War of 1853–56, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, and World Wars I and II. The troops had a special uniform that included a jacket, a waistcoat, wide trousers with a wide belt, and a fez or turban. The hired rifle (infantry) units in the army of the Turkish sultan were also known as Zouaves. There was one such brigade of Zouaves in the beginning of the 20th century.

Detachments of Zouaves of death, consisting of brave suicide fighters, were among the insurgent forces in the Polish Uprising of 1863–64.

References in periodicals archive ?
public service concession (leasing) for the management of the p~tits zouaves nursery located at 39 esplanade belvdre.
Among the troops in North Africa were capable combat units such as Zouaves, Turcos, Foreign Legionnaires, and Chasseurs d'Afrique.
In 1860, in an attempt to fend off incorporation into the new kingdom of Italy, French General Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de la Moriciere organized a new military unit for the Papacy--the Zouaves Pontificaux.
The papal Zouaves, inspired by an Algerian Berber tribe of the same name (Zwawa) and originally the name of a part of the French military, were constituted in 1860 under the pontiff Pius IX and French Major Lamorciere to oppose the Italian unification process which had been threatening the papal states of central Italy.
The four regiments of Zouaves in the French Army in 1914, while dressed in traditional North African style uniforms, were composed entirely of native Frenchmen rather than Colonials (bottom, left).
For example, most of the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves," came from Manhattan, with the exception of one company from Poughkeepsie.
Monte a l'Opera House par une troupe francaise itinerante ** Joue a l'Institut par des etudiants du college Saint-Joseph *** Joue al'Institut par le Cercle dramatique des Zouaves pontificaux
Everywhere were fugitives--territorials, 'joyeux,' 'tiralleurs,' zouaves, artillerymen--without weapons, haggard, greatcoats thrown away or wide open, running around like madmen, begging for water in loud cries, spitting blood, some even rolling on the ground making desperate efforts to breathe.
He joined the French army during World War I, was assigned to a crack regiment, the legendary Third Zouaves.
From then on, casualties began to arrive: Zouaves in their baggy red trousers which caught on the barbed wire with hideous results, blue-uniformed infantry, colonial troops from Senegal: virtually none of them speaking any English and few of the Scottish Women speaking much French.
Diane Audy presente un ouvrage bien documente sur les zouaves de Quebec au XXe siecle.
An association of Zouaves was established in their memory in Quebec City in 1899, and the movement "grew elsewhere in the province, even to the point that an actual regiment of Canadian Papal Zouaves was formed in the early 20th century.