The framework of alternations as put forward by Kastovsky (1968) constitutes a double synthesis: firstly, of contrasts motivated by ablaut
and by other phenomena and, secondly, of synchronic and diachronic facts.
als Umlaut im Ostjakischen: Prinzipien und Grundzuge der lautgeschichtlichen Betrachtung.
Can there be notional reasons for selection of a particular declension, given that in all of these declensions there is not the problem that ablaut
is paradigmatically relevant, and given the simplifications of their historical post-root structure and the formal convergences among them?
2004 "The n-less versus -n past participle forms of certain ablaut
verbs in seventeenth and eighteenth century American and British English", Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 40: 193-208.
Since the Tocharian PP is obviously cognate in its reduplication and endings with the perfect participle of the classical IE languages, the task is to explain how it came to be paired semantically with the preterite, which continues the PIE aorist--while the (proto-)perfect with *o ~ *[empty set] ablaut
became one of the sources of the Tocharian subjunctive.
The verbal systems of the two languages besides inflexions and ablaut
alterations employ the prefix as an additional marker of the preterite participle.
The distinction based on a consonantal change might have prevented the secondary distinction by vowel Ablaut
As far as the origin of this form is concerned, it has been viewed as an augmentless aorist (rather than an original perfect) with the -es ending (s voiced to z and lost in Proto-Germanic) and ablaut
alternations according to the pattern of preterite ind.
My one quibble here concerns the inclusion of the ablaut
patterns of root nouns under the same heading as suffixed nouns on the assumption that they had a zero-suffix.
The majority of publications in the field of ablaut
verbs finish their analyses at the turn of the fifteenth century.
Do students really need the knowledge of Proto-Indo-European ablaut
series to understand Old English strong verbs?
The distinction between passive and active by Ablaut
of the prefix vowel is, of course, only relevant for those languages that preserve internal passives.