absolute


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absolute,

in philosophy, the opposite of relative. The term has acquired numerous widely variant connotations in different philosophical systems. It means unlimited, unconditioned, or free of any relation; perfect, complete, or total; permanent, inherent, or ultimate; independent, or valid without reference to a perceiving subject. In epistemology, absolute means certain or indubitable as opposed to probable or hypothetical. As a substantive, the absolute is the ultimate basis of reality, the principle underlying the universe. Theologically, it is synonymous with, or characteristic of, God. Philosophically, it may be considered as the unknowable, the thing-in-itself; as that ultimate nonrelative that is the basis of all relation; as the ultimate, all-comprehensive principle in which all differences and distinctions are merged. The concept of the absolute was present in Greek philosophy. In modern times, both realists and idealists have used the term, but it is, perhaps, most intimately connected with the idealism of G. W. HegelHegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
, 1770–1831, German philosopher, b. Stuttgart; son of a government clerk. Life and Works

Educated in theology at Tübingen, Hegel was a private tutor at Bern and Frankfurt.
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absolute

[‚ab·sə′lüt]
(meteorology)
Referring to the highest or lowest recorded value of a meteorological element, whether at a single station or over an area, during a given period. Abbreviated abs.

absolute

1. Physics
a. (of a pressure measurement) not relative to atmospheric pressure
b. denoting absolute or thermodynamic temperature
2. Maths
a. (of a constant) never changing in value
b. (of an inequality) unconditional
c. (of a term) not containing a variable
3. Law (of a court order or decree) coming into effect immediately and not liable to be modified; final
4. Law (of a title to property, etc.) not subject to any encumbrance or condition

absolute

In programming, a mathematical function that always returns a positive number. For example, ABS(25-100) yields 75, not -75.
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Nasche(5) ruled that a release form signed by an applicant for government employment afforded an absolute privilege against a defamation action, even if statements of the former employer were made maliciously.
The British physicist William Thomson, later Baron Kelvin (1824-1907), pointed out in 1848 that it was not volume loss that was crucial, but energy loss; that energy loss affected all matter, liquids and solids as well as gases; and that the rate of loss was such that absolute zero should be reached at - 273[degrees] C.
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