liability

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liability,

in law, an obligation of one party to another, usually to compensate financially. It is a fundamental aspect of torttort,
in law, the violation of some duty clearly set by law, not by a specific agreement between two parties, as in breach of contract. When such a duty is breached, the injured party has the right to institute suit for compensatory damages.
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 law, although liability may also arise from duties entered into by special agreement, as in a contractcontract,
in law, a promise, enforceable by law, to perform or to refrain from performing some specified act. In a general sense, all civil obligations fall under tort or contract law.
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 or in the carrying out of a fiduciaryfiduciary
, in law, a person who is obliged to discharge faithfully a responsibility of trust toward another. Among the common fiduciary relationships are guardian to ward, parent to child, lawyer to client, corporate director to corporation, trustee to trust, and business
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 duty. Liability is not always the result of an intentionally damaging act or of some proven fault like negligencenegligence,
in law, especially tort law, the breach of an obligation (duty) to act with care, or the failure to act as a reasonable and prudent person would under similar circumstances.
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. The affixing of liability may once have been simply a peace-preserving alternative to the practice of an injured party taking vengeance. Further, the law's emphasis has long been that one who is able to pay (who, in modern terms, has "deep pockets") should pay one who has lost something through an action of the payer, even if that action was blameless.

Vicarious liability is the duty of a principal, e.g., an employer, to pay for losses occasioned by the acts of an agent, e.g., an employee. Strict liability, under which those engaging in certain undertakings (e.g., such "ultrahazardous" practices as the industrial use of high explosives) are held responsible for injury without inquiry into fault, has been increasingly imposed by courts and by statute in the 19th and 20th cent. One response has been the growth of the liability insurance industry, offering such coverage as physicians' malpracticemalpractice,
failure to provide professional services with the skill usually exhibited by responsible and careful members of the profession, resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the party contracting those services.
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 insurance. An area that has been the focus of much litigation, legislation, and debate in recent decades is product liability, under which heavy strict liability costs have been imposed on makers of such varied items as foods, drugs, cosmetics, and automobiles.

References in periodicals archive ?
The product helps companies conduct human abuse liability studies via an iPad tablet.
That study compared bupropion with dexamphetamine and showed essentially no abuse liability of bupropion (Br.
The company has significant expertise in pain, human abuse liability, psychiatry, neurology and diabetes.
Announced positive top-line results from oral human abuse liability clinical study of Egalet-002, an abuse-deterrent oxycodone;
Measures common to other studies of drug abuse liability were used, including the Addiction Research Center Inventory, which consists of 49 true-false items to measure sedation, stimulantlike effects, and euphoria.
CRI Lifetree, a leader in specialized early stage research focused in pain, human abuse liability, psychiatry, neurology and diabetes, announced its new location to the drug development industry at the 2012 Drug Information Association (DIA) Annual Meeting held
In 2009, after relocating to the US, his solid reputation allowed him to transition into business development, with notable success spearheading Cambridge Cognition's product development to address the Human Abuse Liability trials market.
This was one of several clinical pearls he shared about how to effectively manage patients taking opioids and other medications with drug abuse liability.
EXALGO contains hydromorphone, an opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance with an abuse liability similar to other opioid analgesics.
June 29, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Egalet Corporation (Nasdaq: EGLT) ("Egalet") today announced positive results from a Category 3 intranasal human abuse liability (HAL) study of Egalet-001, an abuse-deterrent, extended-release, oral morphine formulation in late-stage clinical development for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock opioid treatment and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
CRI Lifetree, a leader in early stage research focused in pain, human abuse liability, psychiatry, neurology and diabetes, presented two research posters at the 52nd Annual NCDEU Meeting.
We look forward to the results of our clinical human abuse liability studies for Egalet-002, being conducted with Oxycontin[sup.