(redirected from academicism)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to academicism: academism



a trend in painting formulated in the art academies of the 16th through 19th centuries and founded on dogmatic adherence to the importance of external forms in classical art.

Academism made possible the systemization of artistic education and the strengthening of classical tradition, which were transformed into a system of “eternal” canons and instructions. Considering contemporary reality unworthy of “exalted” art, academism presented instead timeless and nonnational norms of beauty, idealized images, and subjects remote from reality (from ancient mythology, the Bible, and ancient history), which it emphasized by conventionality and abstraction in modeling, color, and drawing and theatricality of composition, gesture, and pose. As the official school accepted by most monarchies and bourgeois states, academism turned its idealistic aesthetics against progressive national realistic art.

Academism arose at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The Bologna school—which formulated rules for the imitation of the art of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the French academism of the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries (C. Le Brun and others)—mastered a group of the principles and methods of classicism and served as a model for many European and American academies of fine arts. During the 19th century, the leaders of academism—such as A. Canova in Italy, D. Ingres in France, and F. A. Bruni in Russia—insisted on the emasculated tradition of classicism and fought against the romantics, the realists, and the naturalists but accepted some of the outer aspects of their methods, reducing academism to eclectic salon art. Academism declined under the blows of the realists, including the Russian peredvizhniki (members of the Society of Wandering Exhibitions), and bourgeois individualistic opposition; it was retained only in part at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century in a group of countries, for the most part in the renovated forms of neoclassicism. The term “academism” is also understood more broadly to mean any canonization or transformation of the ideals and principles of the art of the past into immutable norms. In this sense one speaks of the academism of several schools of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, which canonized the heritage of the ancient Greek classics, or of a group of modern artists who have tried to revive the concepts of schools and currents which have become historically outdated.


References in periodicals archive ?
Yet in contrast to this academicism, when Patterson lets go and relaxes, her writing voice is lyrically poetic and engaging.
In Padilla, there is a description of LT in its incipient development, pointing to authors and publications most of which he rejects for their lack of articulation with the church, their academicism, or their "ideologization" of the Bible.
The fact that under the terms of their charter they were far less autonomous than universities was intended to stop the incremental academicism that had seen similar sorts of institutions eventually acquire the status and benefits of fully fledged universities (Lowe, 1990).
Truth and salvation lay not in academicism but with individual conscience and interpretation.
Even more importantly, he devalues their compositional method and their academicism through a code of gender associations.
The closeted academicism of the school was never so powerfully underlined as in its unwillingness to change much of anything because of the Shoah or following the creation of the State.
Gone, from ``The United States of Poetry'' are the dust and 19th-century typefaces - not to mention the academicism - many associate with poetry.
When any of these students were known to write poetry, one or two of my senior colleagues would invariably suggest that we would really be doing them a favor by saving them from academicism, giving them some experience of the "real world.
Concentrating on such supposedly marginal moments in American culture as the Russian Revolution, the Harlem renaissance, the radical experimentations of the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, and the popular interventions of feminism, Kalaidjian dexterously blurs the boundaries between high and low culture, politics and aesthetics, and academicism and popular forms.
It starts in 1868 with the foundation of the Societe Libre des Beaux-Arts, the first salon in Brussels to reject academicism in favour of naturalism.
45) But should we dismiss Lawlor's concerns about the growing elitism, exclusivism, and academicism of New Zealand literary culture as sheer paranoia?
Slonimsky defended Piston against accusations of academicism, writing: "The word 'Academy' should not necessarily be equated with a didactic establishment, codification and self-containment.