accident


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accident

1. Logic Philosophy a nonessential attribute or characteristic of something (as opposed to substance)
2. Metaphysics a property as contrasted with the substance in which it inheres
3. Geology a surface irregularity in a natural formation, esp in a rock formation or a river system

Accident

 

in philosophy, a term for the incidental or immaterial as opposed to the substantial or essential.

It is first encountered in Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Physics; later Porphyry divided accidents into those which are separable—for example, a dream for a man—and those which are inseparable—for example, dark skin pigmentation for a Negro. The concept of accident was developed in scholasticism, which viewed several characteristics of things as “real accidents,” existing on their own without regard for the substances in which they are usually inherent. Descartes, Hobbes, and other 17th-century philosophers rejected the existence of “real accidents”; following this vein, Spinoza replaced the term “accident” with the term “modus,” by which he meant the isolated manifestation of substance. The concept of accident is encountered in Kant, Fichte, and other philosophers of the 18th and 19th centuries and also in formal logic—for example, in J. S. Mill and F. C. S. Schiller.

V. V. SOKOLOV


Accident

 

in civil law, a circumstance leading to the nonfulfillment or improper fulfillment of obligations by a debtor, without the debtor or the creditor subject to blame. As a general rule, an accident frees the debtor of liability involving his own assets.

In Soviet law, the responsibility for accidents is acknowledged only under circumstances specified by law. For example, enterprises especially established to store property, such as storage and cold-storage enterprises, are held liable for accidents. The same is true of organizations and citizens whose work or other activity entails risk or danger, such as transport organizations and motor vehicle owners. Air transport organizations are held liable for death, maiming, or other injury to a passenger during takeoff, landing, or flight, as well as during the boarding and deplaning of passengers. This applies not only to accidents but also to the effects of force majeure, as stipulated in Article 101 ofthe Air Code of the USSR.

What does it mean when you dream about an accident?

Accident dreams can represent a variety of different situations, from straightforward fears of being in an actual, physical accident (or memories of such an accident) to a sense that one is headed for a more metaphorical “crack up.” We may be so preoccupied with something that we are not paying attention, or so involved in the rat race that we need to slow down. As extensions of ourselves, vehicles often represent the physical body, so an accident dream may indicate a health problem or anxieties about health. If the general tone of the dream is positive (even if violent), accidents may symbolize something or some part of life of which one is letting go.

accident

[′ak·sə‚dent]
(hydrology)
An interruption in a river that interferes with, or sometimes stops, the normal development of the river system.

accident

A sudden, unexpected event identifiable as to time and place. Also see occurrence.

accident

An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flying until the time that all such persons have disembarked, in which
i. A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of (a) being in the aircraft; (b) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have become detached; or (c) direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are the result of natural causes, self-inflicted, inflicted by other persons, or to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew. For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within 30 days of the accident is classified as fatal.
ii. The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that (a) adversely affects its structural strength, performance, or flight and (b) would normally require major repairs or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories; propellers; wing tips; antennae; tires; brakes; fairings; small dents; or puncture holes in the aircraft skin.
iii. The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. An aircraft is considered missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located.

accident

In risk management, any unanticipated or unpredictable event that may interfere with normal functions or cause logical or physical damage to data.
References in classic literature ?
While I stood bewildered at the suddenness of this accident, (which might have happened, nevertheless, to any one under the sun), and while I still continued incapable of sight, I was accosted by the Angel of the Odd, who proffered me his aid with a civility which I had no reason to expect.
Nor can I either, my dear Dick; accidents are generally caused by the imprudence of the aeronauts, or the defective construction of their apparatus.
Never, by accident, in this deliberate game, did he hurt her chin or cheek so severely as he hurt his own tender nose, but in the hurt itself he found more of delight than pain.
I got to the station and gave him the telegram, just as the accident took place.
With the exception of the terrible details, Jackson's story of his accident was the same as that I had already heard.
I suppose all these years since his accident will not exist for him.
So, thanks to his care, his intelligence, his useful intervention in all difficulties, his prodigious and humane sagacity, the average of accidents did not exceed that of transatlantic countries, noted for their excessive precautions-- France, for instance, among others, where they reckon about one accident for every two hundred thousand francs of work.
Mrs Blifil answered, No; she was sure some accident had befallen him; for that he would never stay out without sending her word, as he must know how uneasy it would make her.
You have been in a railway accident," the doctor told him, "and you were brought here afterwards.
Pollyanna was a little late for supper on the night of the accident to John Pendleton; but, as it happened, she escaped without reproof.
The accident fell out in Appin -- mind ye that, Alan; it's Appin that must pay; and I am a man that has a family.
Varya," he said, looking sternly at her, "I shot myself by accident.