achievement

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achievement

the gaining of social position or social status as the outcome of personal effort in open competition with others, e.g. in formal examinations or competition in a market. As such, achievement is contrasted with ascription and ASCRIBED STATUS. See also PATTERN VARIABLES.

While achievement in its widest sense can be seen as a particular feature of modern, ‘open-class‘ society (see SOCIAL MOBILITY) (e.g. ‘careers open to talents’), its opposite, ascription (e.g. inheriting one'S father’s job), is a feature especially of traditional class-divided societies. However, both modes of allocation of social position and social status will usually exist in any society. One reason for this is that some positions (e.g. historically, especially GENDER ROLES) are mainly ascribed, while other positions, e.g. where skills or talents required by the society are in short supply, tend to be subject to open competition. Another reason is that there are likely to be ascriptive elements underlying achieved status (e.g. the effects of advantages of family background underlying educational achievement). See also FUNCTIONALIST THEORY OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, MERITOCRACY.

References in periodicals archive ?
Pakistan Muslim League-N (PML-N) could achieve 42% targets in Education and development of water resources while in power production government achieved 49% targets.
The Salvation Army could answer the city's call to run Project Achieve.
How to do this is not entirely clear, but necessary to achieve the collaborative component of reflective practice (Osterman & Kottkamp, 2004).
Adjustment services are a comprehensive and integrated set of services, including counseling, mentoring and other services, designed to provide individuals with disabilities with confidence, interpersonal and disability-specific skills, and a positive attitude toward disability that they may require to achieve competitive employment, community integration, and independence.
Teams will use this analysis to prioritize the highest leverage projects necessary to achieve goals.
To achieve the broadest benefit from DNA sequencing technology for biology and medicine, systems that are not only substantially more efficient but also more usable by the average research laboratory are needed.
It would not mean that she must achieve some virtually out-of-reach goal such as becoming a size six through the effort of participating in an aerobics class six days per week.
While the goals of virtualization are desirable, virtualization alone proved unable to achieve those goals.
Some agents continually achieve excellent loss ratios, and they achieve those loss ratios not because they are in a particular geographic area or because they write only low loss ratio business.
If it is truly your goal, it must be so important to you that you are motivated to do whatever it takes to achieve it.
Achieve Healthcare Information Systems changed its name to Achieve Healthcare Technologies following its merger with Patient Technologies Inc.
To achieve the dramatic increases in x-ray spectral resolution (<20eV at 1.