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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


See references under and .



An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
Recognized causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after a tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy are acoustic trauma from manipulation of the ossicles, the noise generated by suctioning and, in the case of mastoidectomy, the noise generated by temporal bone drilling.
All mice were exposed to well-defined noise causing an acoustic trauma and leading to hearing impairment.
Long-term administration of magnesium after acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in guinea pigs.
Some acoustic trauma and vertigo/dizziness studies also suggest that there may be balance disturbances resulting from noise exposure [61].
They do Post Mortems in the UK, and there they think the deep-diving species are suffering from acoustic trauma.
Although 70 percent of the porpoises had deteriorated too much for scientists to find signs of acoustic trauma, the scientists stated that acoustic injury from Navy sonar being used at the time of the strandings could not be ruled out.
This constitutes objective evidence of vestibular involvement accompanying cochlear damage in individuals who have experienced acoustic trauma, provided they have noise-induced hearing loss in only one ear, Dr.
The fury of bombs and shells bursting near us is sure to result in permanent acoustic trauma to our ears.
Acoustic trauma was induced by a continuous pure tone of 6 kHz, at 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes.
Researchers from Western Kentucky University and the University of Louisville worked together to see which genes were switched on or off after acoustic trauma and found distinct patterns of gene expression.
Patients who met the inclusion criteria completed a form to provide demographic data and information on the nature of their tinnitus--that is, the type of sound, resultant disabilities, accompanying symptoms, acoustic trauma, and accompanying disease (i.
She noted that a single acoustic trauma, such as that caused by a shotgun blast, can result in permanent hearing loss -- or in temporary hearing loss, which may be followed by partial or total recovery.

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