behavior has also been reported anecdotally for Cisco in small Wisconsin lakes in the Great Lakes basin (Cahn, 1927) and documented in Eurasian populations of other Coregonus species (Naesje et al, 1986; Bronte et al, 1999).
These migration patterns can be more broadly categorized into non-migratory and migratory life history strategies, with the former corresponding to stream-resident populations and the latter to fluvial, adfluvial, and anadr-omous populations.
Inland populations, which include fluvial and adfluvial life history types, are distributed within interior drainages of western Alberta, British Columbia, the southern Yukon, and the Mackenzie River Valley in the Northwest Territories (Haas and McPhail, 1991; Reist et al.
SR = stream-resident, F fluvial, AF = adfluvial, UK = unknown.
Stream-resident bull trout populations have adapted to survive in less productive headwater areas, whereas fluvial and adfluvial populations inhabit more productive downstream areas (Fraley and Shepard, 1989; Adams, 1994; Swanberg, 1997).
The ability of individual populations to withstand impacts is further influenced by life history, since growth varies between stream-resident and adfluvial and fluvial types (McPhail and Murray, 1979; Fraley and Shepard, 1989; Adams, 1994; McPhail and Baxter, 1996; Ratliff et al.
While many of these fish are fluvial (completely stream resident), adfluvial (stream to lake migratory) and lacustrine (lake resident) fish also exist.
Within a single stream, adfluvial and fluvial brook trout may be sympatric.
r]), and condition factor (K) would differ between wild resident and wild adfluvial brook trout within a stream.
2009), brook trout within PIRO appear to take on two forms: adfluvial and fluvial, with the adfluvial emigrants also appearing to include occasional use of neighboring streams in their behavior.
Finally, because of the tight lake-stream relationship, grayling in the Barrenlands exhibit an adfluvial
life history (Northcote, 1978), residing mainly in the lakes and ascending streams primarily to spawn.
Across the range, it inhabits cool mountain streams with mostly rocky substrates (Hauser, 1969; Scott and Crossman, 1973; Sigler and Sigler, 1996), but is also found in large rivers (Smith, 1966), lakes (Baxter and Stone, 1995) and as adfluvial
reservoir populations in headwater areas (Erman, 1973; Marvin and Erman, 1982; Decker, 1989; Wydoski and Wydoski, 2002).