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800), belonging to the Benedictine monastery near Aniane, reinforces the Christology of the two natures in the one person, as defined in the early ecumenical councils, over against Adoptionism.
And at the end he is willing to look sympathetically at both Christologies: adoptionism and Catholicism.
Adoptionism is the view that Jesus was originally no more than a human being who became divine when God adopted him through a special act, sometimes said to be his baptism or his transfiguration, but usually his resurrection.
Although he makes a passing reference to Sabellianism, he offers no discussion of second-century views of adoptionism or modalism.
1, Irenaeus believed Jesus as the Word incarnate is the Son of God from the moment of conception, adoptionism in this context cannot be understood as referring to the belief that Jesus, son of Joseph and Mary and a mere man, was adopted as Son of God at the baptism.
Cavadini The Last Christology of the West: Adoptionism in Spain and Gaul, 785-820, Middle Ages Series (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1993) 1.
In the process it will be necessary to show how a Synoptic-type Spirit-Christology, admissible in the first century, can escape the charge of adoptionism when propounded seriously in the 20th century.
Adoptionism is ruled out because there are not three acts, but just one act -- assumption into hypostatic union -- which contains creation and sanctification within itself.
25) This protest is a protection against adoptionism.
37) Jacob of Serugh wants to establish the Spirit as the principle of identity, but also desires to avoid the suggestion that the Spirit's role was a sanctifying one, again a polemical note against adoptionism.
This revised doctoral dissertation, completed under the direction of Jaroslav Pelikan at Yale University, is a significant piece of revisionist scholarship; it challenges conventional wisdom concerning Spanish adoptionism.
Third, the immediate reason for the rise of adoptionism at this time was the Muslim conquest of Visigothic Spain, which impressed upon Spanish theologians the necessity of developing a Christological doctrine compatible with the Islamic notion of strict monotheism.