adrenocorticotropic hormone

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Related to adrenocorticotropic hormone: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Test, follicle stimulating hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency

adrenocorticotropic hormone

(ədrē`nōkôr'təkōtrŏp`ĭk), polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary glandpituitary gland,
small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).
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. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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 to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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. The release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is stimulated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a secretion of the hypothalamus. ACTH secretion is an excellent example of the regulation of a biological system by a negative-feedback mechanism; high levels of adrenocortical steroids in the blood tend to decrease ACTH release, whereas low steroid levels have the opposite effect. ACTH has the same pharmacologic and clinical effects as cortisone when given intravenously or intramuscularly; however, it has no value when applied externally and cannot be taken orally since it is deactivated by digestive enzymes. The action of ACTH is contingent upon normally functioning adrenal glands and is therefore useless in disorders caused by adrenal insufficiency, e.g., as replacement therapy where both adrenal glands have been removed.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone


(ACTH; also corticotropin), a hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. It stimulates the function of the cortex of the adrenal glands (the production of corticoids—in particular, hydrocortisone) and thereby contributes to the normal course of metabolic processes and to the increased resistance of human and animal organisms to the effects of unfavorable conditions.

ACTH is a peptide chain consisting of 39 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of about 4,500. Its biological activity is due to the 24 amino acid residues that are closest to the amine end of the molecule, while the remaining 15 define the species characteristics and immunological properties of the hormone. In addition to its primary effects on the adrenal glands, ACTH also exhibits fat-mobilizing and melanocyte-stimulating activity. When the defense mechanisms of the body must be mobilized (during trauma, infection, stress situations, and so forth), increased amounts of ACTH are secreted into the blood.

The secretion of ACTH by the hypophysis is controlled by the hypothalamus. The regulatory influences from the hypothalamus are transmitted to the hypophysis by a neurohumoral substance, probably a peptide, found in the hypothalamus. This substance is called corticotropin releasing factor, or CRF.

ACTH is used as a hormonal preparation in the treatment of adrenocortical insufficiency caused by hypophyseal disorders, as well as in the treatment of rheumatism, polyarthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, eczema and other allergies, and other diseases. ACTH for medical use is obtained from the hypophyses of cattle. ACTH has also been synthesized; these preparations, which differ structurally from natural ACTH, have a higher biological activity.


Pankov, Iu. A. “Khimiia AKTG i mekhanizm reguliatsii ego sekretsii.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1959, vol. 47, no. 3.
Gorizontov, P. D., and T. N. Protasova. Rol’ AKTG i kortikos-teroidov v patologii. Moscow, 1968.
Schwyzer, R. “Chemistry and metabolic action of nonsteroid hormones.” Annual Review of Biochemistry, 1964, vol. 33, pp. 259–85.


adrenocorticotropic hormone

[ə¦drēn·ō′kȯrd·ə·kō′träp·ik ′hȯr‚mōn]
The chemical secretion of the adenohypophysis that stimulates the adrenal cortex. Abbreviated ACTH. Also known as adrenotropic hormone.
References in periodicals archive ?
Conditions mimicking mineralocorticoid excess (with low-renin hypertension due to sodium retention, and hypokalemia) but with low aldosterone concentrations (unlike in PAL) include licorice overuse, which results in inhibition of 11[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11[beta]-HSD2); congenital 11[beta]-HSD2 deficiency; Liddle syndrome (constitutive activation of the epithelial sodium channel); and conditions associated with adrenocorticotropic hormone excess (causing high deoxycorticosterone concentrations), including ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11[beta]-hydroxylase or 17[alpha]-hydroxylase deficiency, and glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (2).
Treatment with Signifor leads to suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion in Cushing's disease patients.
Several rapid intraoperative tests for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) have also been described for use during transphenoidal surgery to localize and remove pituitary adenomas (19, 62, 71, 72).
The standard short high-dose (250 [micro] g) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test (HDST) with synthetic ACTH is the most widely used test for the detection of primary or prolonged secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (1).
The catabolism of adrenocorticotropic hormone: the stability of adrenocorticotropic hormone: the stability of adrenocorticotropic hormone in blood, plasma, serum, and saline.
the adrenals and AVS, performed through sequential catheterization during low-dose continuous adrenocorticotropic hormone infusion.
CRH, produced by the hypothalamus in the brain, stimulates the pituitary gland to produce a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Acthar Gel, a natural adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), for the treatment of Infantile Spasms.
For instance, Markram suggests that the findings may open up new avenues for explaining how initiating the fight-or-flight response through the adrenocorticotropic hormone yields tunnel vision and aggression.
This eight person single dose exploratory study showed that NBI-77860 was effective in reducing the key biomarkers of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone androgen (17-OHP).
Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production outside the pituitary gland occurs in approximately 10% of patients presenting with Cushing's syndrome (1).

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