advocate

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advocate:

see attorneyattorney,
agent put in place of another to manage particular affairs of the principal. An attorney in fact is an agent who conducts business under authority that is controlled and limited by a written document called a letter, or power, of attorney granted by the principal.
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Advocate

 

a person who practices the profession of rendering legal assistance. In the USSR, an advocate must be a citizen and must have a higher education in law and no less than two years of experience in legal work. A person who does not have a higher legal education but does have at least five years of experience in legal work may be admitted to a college of advocates (Kollegiia advokatov ) by permission of the council of ministers of an autonomous republic or the executive committee of a regional (territorial) soviet of workers’ deputies. Advocates are subject to the general labor legislation with the specific conditions of their work taken into consideration. Soviet advocates render legal assistance to the population, enterprises, institutions, and organizations in the form of consultation and advice on legal questions, interpretation of and information on legislation, the preparation of complaints, petitions, and other legal documents. Advocates act as defense counsels for persons under indictment or as representatives of civil plaintiffs, defendants, and victims in criminal cases and as representatives of the parties or other participants in civil cases. In some cases, legislation provides for the mandatory participation of an advocate in the proceedings—for instance, in all cases of crimes committed by minors. In cases of crimes of minors or of persons whose physical or mental handicaps prevent them from exercising their right of defense, an advocate may act as defense counsel from the moment the charge is made. In all other cases, he may do so from the moment the defendant has been informed of the completion of the preliminary investigation. The colleges of advocates may conclude agreements with institutions, enterprises, organizations, and kolkhozes on conducting cases for them in courts and arbitration tribunals.

An advocate is obligated to use all the methods and techniques of defense specified by law to bring out the circumstances that might lead to the acquittal of the defendant or to the mitigation of his responsibility and to render all necessary help to the defendant. An advocate does not have the right to withdraw from a case he has assumed or to divulge information that he has received in the process of rendering legal assistance.

In the USSR, advocates’ services are accessible to the population, thanks to a wide network of legal consultation offices and the low fees for services. In many cases, legal assistance is rendered free of charge: in labor cases, in cases on collecting alimony, and in preparing various statements for disabled persons of the first and second groups, for enlisted men, and others. Oral information is also rendered free. The presidium of the college of advocates or the manager of a legal consultation office may also waive the fee for other types of legal aid, depending on the financial situation of the person who has asked for legal help.

In contrast to bourgeois states, there is no private law practice in the USSR and other socialist countries. Every advocate must be a member of the college of advocates, through which he receives all cases or other commissions to render legal assistance. In the USSR, all advocates have equal rights and can plead in any court. There is no division of advocates into higher and lower categories such as existed in prerevolutionary Russia (sworn attorney and private attorney, the latter allowed to plead only in a lower court) or such as still exists in Britain (barrister and solicitor) and in France (avocat and avoué).

T. N. DOBROVOL’SKAIA

advocate

1. a person who pleads his client's cause in a court of law
2. Scots Law the usual word for barrister
References in periodicals archive ?
We even allowed a mad cleric to spew out racial and religious hatred, including the advocation of terrorist bombings in this country.
The most apparent and frequent rhetorical move in the essay takes the following form: a tendency or disposition of Barthes's is described; this is then represented as being either symptomatic of, or a bold extension of, modern aestheticism; finally, the tendency is summed up as having as its ultimate goal the expression and advocation of "pleasure.
The Queene is Defrauded of the Intent of the Law": Spenser's Advocation of Civil Law in "A View of the State of Ireland"', in Papers on Language & Literature, 41:2, pp.
Vives's contribution to the art of letter-writing and its anticipation of Lipsius's advocation of a simple epistolary style receive due recognition.
She refuses to lie down and follow him, or to let her daughters do the same, as in the poem "Advice," a powerful advocation for speech, for speaking out, for the necessity of using words to save the world: "Dear children, you must try to say / Something when you are in need.
It was at the time when he was going head-to-head with ITN's Martyn Lewis who subsequently got ridiculed for his advocation of more 'good news' on television.
Should the Bar allow advocation of gay adoption, not only would I object, but believe that a legal challenge may be in order.
I posit that these explanatory factors, other than trend, are themselves random occurrences, and therefore take seriously Lucas's (1976) advocation that policy should be modeled as the outcome of a stochastic process (see Dotsey 1990).
Awesome too that the controversial quintet -who flaunted two extrovert gay male singers and whose debut release and previous number one,Relax, had been banned by the Beeb for its advocation of the joys of copulation -had chosen their second release to concentrate on the threat of Armageddon.
This also pulls the plug on attempts to paint Wilde as either a feminist, (19) or a misogynist, (20) because neither formulation can cope with his advocation that men and women drop the claim to reason and find faith in God.
As we have seen, this might find resonance in enthusiastic advocation of print elsewhere in Lachrymae Musarum and beyond.
Regardless of whether they are "true believers" or simply trying to pacify international critics, for drug-exporting countries to openly defect by officially advocating drug legalization would be unthinkable, not only because it would draw the wrath off the United States but also because their advocation would be universally condemned and would openly violate their pledge to uphold UN-based antidrug treaties.